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NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE 

(Founded in 1844.) 

CONTENTS FOR OCTOBER, 1898. 

PAGE. 

Wilson Caldwell, Frontispiece 

Knighthood and Nobility in America, '<?#, 1 

The Allegory in Tennyson's "Holy Grail," 

II. B. Holmes, '99, V 

Wilson Caldwell li 

On the Banks of Helm Brook, C, '99 _ 2< 

The Idyllic Note in Adam Bede, M. 3.' 

The Editor's Desk 3 

Book Notice, 

Helbeck of Bannisdale, C. B. Denson 4: 

The College Regord 4 

Alumni Notes 4 

^jP *>R. J. T. JOHNSON, <j|j| Examination Free. «s^j| 

The Greensboro Office Hours, 

;» Eye Specialist. ^| 8 °™' *° g 2 - 3 ° pm - <IJ 

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DECEMBER, 1898. 




PUBLISHED BY TjjJ^ 

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NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE 

(Founded in 1844.) 

CONTENTS FOR DECEMBER, 1898. 

PAGE. 

The Greater United States, Robert W. Winston 54 

A Senior's Fancy, Alonzo E. Cates, 'oo 61 

Life's Golden Age, (Poem), 'g8 , 65 

Assumptions op Socialism, Wm. S. Bernard, 'oo 71 

The Song of the Pine-tree, (Poem), "gS 72 

The PERILS of Imperialism, John M. Greenfield, } gg 73 

Only a Little Lock of Hair, (Poem), A. T. H. 80 

An Old Man's Dream, D.—'gg „ 81 

The Dialectic Literary Society, T. G. Pearson, gg 8£ 

Henry the Fifth's Queen, B. B. Lane, Jr.,' gg. 9C 

The Philanthropic Literary Society, 

William Edward Cox, ? gg 10( 

The Editor's Desk l(V 

Book Notices. 

Bismarck, W. D. Toy _ IK 

Varia, C. B. Denson, gg li; 

Exchanges _ 11, 1 

Alumni Notes 1 1< 

College Record 12. 

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FEBRUARY, 1899. 




ocittrag 

Chapel Hill. N.c. 



NORTH CAROLINA 



(Founded in 1844.) 



CONTENTS FOR FEBRUARY, 1899. 



The Least oe all Lands, Peyton H. Hoge. 



Edmund Fanning, Edward Jenner Wood, '99 

TheMeunchoi^y Days, (Poem), Paul C. Wnitlock, '98 

The Influence of Holland upon American Institutions, 

Charles Leonard Van Noppen, '94 

Life on The Holiday Campus, T. Gilbert Pearson, '99 

The Negro in the South, William Sidney Wilson, '99 

A View oe Cyrano De Bergerac, H. Legare Watson, J 99 

The Editor's Desk 

Book Notices, 

Thomas Huxley, H. V. Wilson , 

Prisoners of Hope, C. B. Denson, '99 

Birds of Village and Field, 

T. Gilbert Pearson, '99 

Beginners' Objective Arithmetic, 

A. Henderson, '98 

Exchanges. 

Alumni Notes 

College Record 



PAGE 

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_ 13 
_ 14 



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171 

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||jP DR. J. T. JOHNSON, 

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NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE 

(Founded in 1844.) 

CONTENTS FOR MARCH, 1899. 

PACK- 

Hon. John Manning, LL/.D., K. P. Battle, V? 191 

Types in Chevy Chase and King Henry the Fourth, 

R. D. W. Connor, >gg 2C4 

The University and the Public Schools, F. M. Osborne, 'pp. .213 

In Face of the Fok, X— 220 

The Dispensary System. H. L. Watson^ '99 225 

The Editor's Desk: 232 

Book Notices, 

William 13 wart Gladstone, Thos. Hume 236 

L,ives of Distinguished North Carolinians, 

C. B. Demon, -gg 239 

History of The Spanish- American War 241. 

Exchanges 243 

Alumni Notes 246 

College Record 250 

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'Founded in 1344.) 



CONTENTS FOR MAY, 1893 

PAGE- 

Captain Johnston Bi.akei.KY, H. M. London, 'gg 253 

Monsieur Melancholy, Bessie Lczuis Whitaker 259 

Did This Ever Happen to You? [Poem], 

J. IV. Greening, 'oo 270 

Election of United States Senators, 

E. D. Broadhurst, '99 271 

An Unsuccessful 'Possum Hunt, C. B. Benson, '99, 286 

Col,. Wieeiam Holland Thomas, Mrs. A. C. Avery, 291 

The Editor's Desk 296 

Book notices, 

A Geographical Catechism, M. C. S. Noble, 299 

Exchanges 305 

Alumni Notes 309 

College Record 311 



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NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE 

(Founded in 1844.) 



CONTENTS FOR JUNE, 1899. 

PAGE. 
The University and the Public Schools, 

F. M. Osborne, 99 312 

Election of United States Senators, T. C. Bowie, : 99 317 

Impressions of a Sojourner in the Hill Country, 

Whitehead Kluttz 330 

Hamlet with the Part of Hamlet Left out, 

Bessie Lewis Whitaker 335 

When the Jessamine Blooms Again, W. L. H., '99 346 

A Reflection, Edward W. Pou 354 

Editor's Desk 356 

Book Reviews, 

The Conjure Woman, C. B. Benson, Jr., '99 359 

The Southern States of the American Union, 

C. B. Benson, Jr. ,'93 360 

Southern Literature, G. B. Benson, Jr., '99 360 

Exchanges : 361 

Alumni Notes 362 

College Record 364 

Commencement 365 



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Wilson Caldwell. 



North Carolina University Magazine. 

Old series, vol xxix. no.i-— ogtober, im, New series, vol. di. 



KNIGHTHOOD AND NOBILITY IN AMERICA. 



The first great and memorable name in early Amer- 
ican history is Roanoke, now the name of a lonely is- 
land on the eastern coast of North Carolina. 

Here the lion flag - of the Tudors was first unfurled 
on this continent. The first letter ever sent from the 
new world was dated Sept. 3, 1585, in "the harbor- 
ough of Roanoak" and was addressed to "Master 
Richard Hackluyt Esq., Temple Bar." Here, as all 
the world knows, was born and baptized little Virginia 
Dare the first white child born on American soil. Here, 
too, was created the 

FIRST AMERICAN LORD. 

On the thirteenth of August, 1587, Manteo, the first 
"salvage" seen in the old world, and always the con- 
stant friend of the English as a reward for his "faith- 
fulnesse" was formally invested with the dignity of 
"Lord of Roanoke and Baron of Dassamonpeach." 

This was the first and only peerage ever conferred 



u 

o 
A 



2 University Magazine 

upon a son of the soil. The Investiture was by special 
command of Sir Walter Raleigh, and was attended by- 
all the solemnities that marked such occasions in the 
old civilizations. In the open air under the shade of 
the primeval trees, our first nobleman took on his 
knightly honors in the presence of the pale-faced 
strangers who thus sought to honor, after their fash- 
ion, loyalty and kindness. 

The well meant honor had no meaning- toManteo, 
we may believe. His domain never contained town or 
farm or factory or school — only the bones of English- 
men and the unsolved mystery of their fate. The 
simple fisher-folk who live upon the island to-day and 
subsist upon the substance which the sea washes at 
their feet, neither know the name nor preserve the gen- 
tle fame of this first baron of their island. 

The Lord of Roanoke is, in a sense, a type of all the 
efforts of privileged classes to grow and thrive upon 
American soil. There is an universal disposition 
among us now to make merry over the whole idea. 
The display of a coat of arms is quite likely to mark 
itso wner as a snob, and has in recent years been made 
an issue in a political contest. When foreign countries 
confer their titles upon men of thought and invention 
like Mr. Edison or Mr. Pullman, or when American 
girls marry titled gentlemen abroad, these eminent 
men and ambitious women are compelled, in conse- 
quence, to run the gauntlet of many a sharp guib and 
pungent jest from the American press. 

Notwithstanding these things it can be shown that 
at least five attempts have been made to transplant 



Knighthood and Nobility in America 3 

hereditary rights and orders upon the simplicity of 
American life — some absurd, some fantastic, some ro- 
mantic and some really in the sacred name of patriot- 
ism, Virginia, as might have been expected, had her 
genuine lord, the eccentric Thomas Fairfax, and her 
colonial magnate, King Carter, with his royal retinue; 
but a state far to the north witnessed the first attempt 
in the new world to establish a Knightly Order — fan- 
tastic — ludicrous almost to the point of a hoax. 

THE ALBION KNIGHTS OF THE CONVERSION OF 
TWENTY-THREE KINGS. 
The quixotic founder of this famous order of Knights 
was Sir EMmund Ployden who came, penniless, to Bos- 
ton in the year 1648 with a patent for a county Pala- 
tine, named New Albion, of which he was to be the earl. 
Upon an ancient "Mapp of Virginia discovered to ye 
Hills," New Albion is put down in the vicinity of New 
Jersey. The purpose of the order is obscure though 
its name discloses some fanciful religious zealotry. 
It had its "medall and riban" and its Coat of Arms 
brilliantly emblazoned according to the strictest rules 
of heraldry. A portrait of twenty-two headless kings 
in the form of so many heads "couped and crowned" 
held up by the twenty third, who knelt down before 
them and supported the shield, adorned the Coat of 
Arms, while the following enigmatical legend shed 
light over the situation. 

All power of life and death, the Sword and Crown 
On Gospel's truth shine Honor and Renown. 

Forty-four lords, baronets and knights were pro- 



4 University Magazine 

vided for in this scheme, each with his high-sounding 
title and noble seat and the head of the order was sup- 
posed to inhabit "a square rock, one hundred and fifty 
feet high, the retired paradise of the children of the 
Ethiopian Emperor." 

An armor, even, was made ready, with crested helmet 
and golden spur, but the Knights themselves failed to 
materialize ; the Indian King's remained unregenerate 
and one is left to conjecture whether Sir Edmund him- 
self was a silly zealot, a shrewd progenitor of the 
modern real-estate agent, or a half-witted old gentle- 
man bitten by a desire for aristocratic splendor. 

THE ILrlvUSTRIOUS ORDER OF THE GOLDEN CAEF. 

The attempt to establish the order bearing - this lud- 
icrous name is scarcely worth considering - save as com- 
memorating - the monumental conceit of a brave old 
French soldier, and the grim badinage of his subjects 
in Louisiana. 

Sieur de la Motte Cadillac is worthy of some honor- . 
able mention in American history. In 1701 he left 
Montreal on an expedition against the rebellious In- 
dians accompanied by one hundred men and a "black 
g'own", or Jesuit priest. While on this expedition he 
founded a settlement and built a fort which soon be- 
came know as Fort d'Etroit, afterwards to grow 
into the great city of Detroit. We may, therefore, 
regard Cadillac as the founder of the State of Michi- 
gan. Abroad he was known through his letters to his 
patron the Duke of Lauzun. These letters were 
masterpieces of naive vanity, delicious stupidity and 



Knighthood and Nobility in America 5 

amusing - self-revelation. Lauzun always carried them 
to the royal levees and they never failed to convulse 
the Sun-King - and his court with laug-hter. Transfer- 
red -by Louis to Louisiana his letters suddenly grew 
morose and querulous. Finally, however, a letter came 
which made amends for all this and set the Court in a 
roar, Cadillac had badg-ered the simple settlers by pom- 
pous orders and silly requests, and at last in hig-h dudg- 
eon,had retired to a fort outside the town and had forbid- 
den anyone to wear a sword who could not prove his no- 
ble lineage. This betrayed the old warrior's weakness. 
A committee of the leading - citizens waited on Cadillac, 
and laid before him a plan of a new order of nobility 
in order that the colony under his glorious rule might 
have its stars and ribbons and medals. Cadillac was 
humbly petitioned to become Grand Master of this 
new order which was significantly called "The Illus- 
trious Order of the Golden Calf." The reguest was 
joyfully acceded to, and, in inflated style, the puffed- 
up ruler wrote to Louis telling - him of the signal honor 
accorded to his many virtues. We are left to imagine 
how the Grand Monarch and the mirth-loving - Court 
enjoyed all this. The order, of course, perished be- 
fore it was born, but. the- hectored and long-suffering 
subjects knew the sweetness of revenge. 

The only order of nobility that was ever legally in- 
stituted within the limits of the Republic was set up 
in the Carolinas and is known in history as 

LrOCKB'S GRAND MODEL. 

An imperial piece of territory stretching from Vir- 
ginia to Florida and westward to the "South Seas" 



6 University Magazine 

had been given away by Charles II, with the generos- 
ity of ignorance, to eight of his "well beloved cousins 
and Councillors. Owing to liberal promises, a grow- 
ing but scattered population soon fringed the seaboard 
of the Carolinas. The conditions of their life were 
primitive enough. All government save of the sim- 
plest was irksome to these hardj 7 men whose daily life 
was one constant struggle with nature, the savage and 
the beast. Under these conditions the Lords Proprie- 
tors conceived the idea of founding a grand American 
empire in the new world. The Earl of Shaftesbury, 
one of the proprietors, called to his aid in furtherance 
of this scheme, a renowned Emglish philosopher and 
constitution-builder, John Locke. 

The result of their labors was a curious- mixture of 
theoretical beauty and learned folly, which, after twen- 
ty years of vain and annoying trial, took its place in 
the limbo of cast-off constitutions and sublime failures. 
The Grand Model provided for a monarchy with two 
orders of nobility, the landgraves or earls, and the 
caciques or barons. The entire territory was to be 
divided into counties each containing 48,000 acres, and 
the population, into freeholders and tenants. The lat- 
ter were never to attain higher rank. There is a piece 
of historic irony in the fact that the only landgrave 
known to history bore the prosaic name of Smith. But 
we should not cease to be grateful to Thomas Smith, the 
Landgrave of South Carolina, For it was he who 
found in the cook's caboose of a Madagascar brigantine, 
which a storm had driven ashore on Sullivan's island, 
a few, odd looking, white grains which were called 



Knighthood and Nobility in America 7 

rice. The grateful Malays gave them to Smith. He 
distributed them among - his friends who planted them 
in their gardens and fields and thus laid the foundation 
of southern rice-culture. 

TRANSMONTANE ORDER OE THE KNIGHTS OP THE 
GOEDEN HORSE-SHOE. 

This most serious and picturesque effort to establish 
an American order of Knighthood was made in Virgin- 
ia in the beginning of the eighteenth century. The 
beautiful Blue Ridge mountains which traverse that 
great state throughout its entire length, were then and 
had been for generations as impassible a barrier to the 
inhabitants of the Piedmont and Seaboard sections as 
were the Alps to the Teutons, or the Himalayas to the 
dwellers in Northern India. 

Vague rumors and wondrous stories of savage tribes 
and towering precipices came to the ears of Virginians 
and were told around the chimney place in the country 
homes. Alexander Spottswood, a Scotchman of hum- 
ble birth, but whose rugged valor and fitness for war 
and wanderings had brought him place and power, was 
Governor of Virginia. He had followed Marlborough 
at Blenheim. He was governing a new commonwealth 
in a land of isolation and rudeness. Fired with the true 
spirit of the pioneer and voyageur, he conceived the 
plan of crossing the insurmountable barrier of the Al- 
leghanies and unshrouding its mysteries. The bold- 
ness of the idea kindled martial enthusiasm throughout 
the colony. Several score of ardent and valorous youth 
flocked to his standard at the Middle Plantation, thrill- 



8 University Magazine 

ing" with romance almost as tender, and quite as fierce 
as, in the olden time, drove the palmer to Palestine. 
It must have been a brave show — that gallant caval- 
cade setting - forth under their veteran commander in 
quest of dangfer and adventure — before them trackless 
forests and wild beasts and savage tribes guarding" 
mountain passes. And it seems almost a pity to be 
forced to record that they met with no serious mishaps. 
The Indians retired before that glittering" array and 
the mere obstacles of nature went down before their 
youthful enthusiasm. It was the season of budding" 
and growth. One, therefore, who knows the mount- 
ains, can partially fancy what glories of nature spread 
out before them as they stood on the summit of the 
great rang"e. 

Forests of ferns clothed the steep hillsides. The 
dog"wood and tulip leaves, the rhododendron and this- 
tle showed'fair amid the rankness of the solemn forests, 
and the sweet odor of the wildwood mingled with the 
tonic ozone of the higli altitudes. 

Spotswood, after the histrionic manner of the times, 
carved the name of his king" upon the hig"hest rock and 
dubbed it Mt. Georgfe. Then, the exultant band, hav- 
ing"- thus made feasible the passage across the mysteri- 
ous barriers of the mountains, "returned home," says 
the ancient historian, "with a glory in those times, 
scarcely inferior to Hannibal." Knighthood came to 
Spotswood from his king" as his reward, and he, in turn, 
wished to perpetuate the memory of the noble exploit 
by establishing" an order of knig-hthood both for his fol- 
lowers, and for those who mig*ht hereafter embark upon 
similar enterprises. 



Knig-thhood and Nobility in America 9 

The Emblem was a small golden horse-shoe, worn 
on a short, scarlet ribbon : the horse-shoe being- chosen 
as the device because the rough mountain roads made 
them necessary for the first time in the history of the 
colony. The motto referring - to the origin of the order 
ran thus ; — "Sic juvat transcendere monies.''' 1 

If the gflamour of romance, and Homeric ardor could 
justify such an order, this deserved to live. But the 
Knig-hts of the Golden Horseshoe perished from our 
annals, their leader dying- in obscurity and rewarded 
with ingratitude. 

The Society of the Cincinnati 

bring-s us to the days of the Republic. It was alto- 
gether natural that the officers of the army and navy 
of the Revolution, and especially its foreig-n officers, 
should seek to erect some memorial of their common 
perils, privations and friendships. 

This was done on Tuesday, May 13, 1783, in Gener- 
al Steuben's headquarters in the "Cantonment'' on the 
Hudson by the establishment of the Society of the Cin- 
cinnati — so named, because, like the illustrious Roman, 
they, too, had g-one from the field to war and from war 
back to the field. The idea seemed an inspiration. 
Knox, Hamilton and many of the leading- fig-ures of the 
Revolution enrolled their names. Washing-ton, the 
American Cincinnatus, became its first president. 
Branch societies were org-anized in all the states. 
These were to meet on each July fourth and their mem- 
bers amid much wine-drinking- and g-ood-comradeship, 
were to re-live and recount the vast events of their do- 



10 University Magizine 

ing. The purposes of the order were partly patriotic, 
partly commemorative and partly benevolent — to pre- 
serve human rights, perpetuate glorious memories and 
succor helpless comrades. The privileges of the order 
were hereditary in the eldest male posterity, or in fail- 
ure, thereof, in collateral branches. The badge chosen 
to distinguish the members of the order was made in 
France after designs by Major I/E}nfant. It consist- 
ed mainly of an American eagle of solid gold with out- 
stretched wings. Its head and tail were enamelled in 
white, and sprigs of laurel enamelled in green arching 
from the wings, swung from. a deep blue "ribband" 
two inches wide, edged with white, descriptive of 
French and American union. There lies before me, as 
I write, one of these old badges worn by s Maj. Jas. 
Hamilton of the Pennsylvania Line, who marched at 
the head of the conquering column at Yorktown. The 
honest gold still shines, and the ruby eye of the eagle 
still glows as brightly as on the day when the old sol- 
dier, whose fearless face looks down on me from the 
pictured canvass, wore it so proudly on his lappel. 

The principal figure of the oval is Cincinnatus — 
Three senators are presenting him with a sword. Im- 
plements of husbandry lie around. Round the whole 
runs this "legend : " Omia Reliquit servare Remftub- 
licamy On the Reverse: 

Sun rising — a city with open gates — Fame crowning 
Cincinnatus with a wreath inscribed Virtutis Prae- 
mium. Round the whole runs this inscription: Socie- 
tas Cincinnatorum Instituta. A. D. 1783. 

The hereditary idea proved fatal to the success of 



Knighthood and Nobility in America 11 

this interesting - organization. A military caste loom- 
ed large before the eyes of the people. Therefore, in 
obedience to public sentiment membership became elec- 
tive and the Society continued in some vigor until the 
visit to this country of General La Fayette who was a 
member of the order. It still exists in several of the 
states, and of late there has been some enthusiasm 
shown in reviving - its ancient renown, but it is without 
power or influence, and its chief claim to fame is its 
beautiful namesake, the metropolis of Ohio. A storm 
of democratic indignation swept over the land when 
this order and its purposes became known. Monarchi- 
cal designs were imputed to its members and even 
Washington's great name did not escape calumny. 
The Adamses opposed it, Jefferson sneered at it, and 
Franklin, in his characteristic way, made sport of the 
whole idea. 

He ridiculed the bad Latin of the motto (and, in truth, 
it is far from Ciceronian) and declared his inability to 
decide whether the bird on the device was an eagle or 
a turkey. He expressed the hope, however, that it 
might prove to be a turkey, for an eagle was a coward 
and a thief, while a turkey, at least hated "Red- 
Coats". 

To us, familiar with the Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic, the Colonial Dames, and the Sons and Daughters of 
Most Everything, all this sound and hubbub seems fran- 
tic and silly enough. The nation has grown more tol- 
erant and reposeful with age and power. The child 
Democracy has grown into a g'iant and, conscious of its 
strength, looks on with amused complaisance at the 



12 University Magazine 

antics of crest-hunters, and the evolution of Four Hun- 
dreds. Indeed, it even speculates and theorises as to 
the ultimate form of all this social ferment and strug- 
gle. Not so with the fathers. They were possessed 
with a morbid uneasiness on the whole subject, with a 
subtle distrust and saving - dread of cast and class. In 
one way or another, our ancestors laid much of the evils 
of society at the doors of king's and lords and knights, 
and would not have even the semblance of these things. 

Hence, the singular fatality attending every effort 
to establish on these shores hereditary rights or 
knightly orders. Hence, the sentiment continually 
cropping out in the state constitutions as each new 
commonwealth was born into statehood, and finally 
crystallising as a part of our organic law in Article 
First of the Constitution, which forever prohibited all 
manner of orders, titles or emoluments. 

In truth, it seems tolerably clear that the great Re- 
public has been set apart by the God of Nations as a 
sort of trial-ground for the testing of popular govern- 
ment. All the conditions and accessories are favora- 
ble — general intelligence, swift communication, forms 
of government, the power of the press, and progress of 
science ; but the resources and shapes of privilege are 
mighty and protean. The struggle is as ancient as 
time. Old forms of danger are crushed out, and new 
ones are born into civilization. 

The spirit of commercialism and the insolence of 
plutocracy are the menances that the nineteenth cen- 
tury bequeaths to the twentieth. This new caste, un- 
foreseen by the Founders, has many of the vices and 



Knighthood and Nobility in America 13 

few of the virtues of the old regime overthrown after 
a domination of eight centuries. It is thrift, cunning, 
greed, sordidness, caution compared with "laissez 
faire" waste, vanity and recklessness. The children 
of the people have their work to do in the time coming 
as did their fathers in the days long ago. 

Let us have faith that they will prevail, and that we 
shall forever be in Mr. Lincoln's exquisite phrase, "a 
government of the people, for the people and by the 
people." '82. 



THE ALLEGORY IN TENNYSON'S "HOLY 

GRAIL." 

The staunch old Saxons, our forefathers, were a re- 
ligious people inclined by nature to a meditative relig- 
iousness even approaching - melancholy. To them the 
didactic method of presenting - a subject was especially 
delightful. It is then no wonder that our Master Lau- 
reate was attracted by the possibilities in the Grail 
Myth. This legend dates back to our earliest litera- 
ture, but Sir Thomas Malory in his Morte D'Arthur 
has collected the various sources and forms of the sto- 
ry, and has presented them to us in a very attractive 
literary form. It is from this form of the legend that 
Tennyson has taken his material. 

The Holy Grail, so the story goes, is the cup from 
which our Lord partook of the last supper with his 
disciples. This cup fell into the hands of one Joseph 
of Arimathaea who, journeying, came to Glastonbury, 
where the white thorn, mindful of the sacredness of 
the Grail, burst into bloom at the Christmas-tide. At 
Glastonbury Joseph founded a monastery and guarded 
the sacred talisman with a jealous vigilance. There 
the Grail remained "scattering healing at a touch," 
until the men and times became so foully corrupt that 
the cup was caught away to heaven and disappeared. 
This is, in main, the legend upon which Tennyson 
founded his " Holy Grail." 

The preemince given to this poem in the Idylls must 
be apparent to the most casual reader. It is indeed the 



The Allegory in " Tennyson 's Holy Grail" 15 

grand climactic culmination of the whole series. Just 
as the summer is the culminating- point of the year, and 
the other seasons, by contrast, lend new splendor to it, 
so the "Grail" poem stands in the Idylls. The dif- 
ferent poems of the series are arranged for this effect. 
The Coming of Arthur is at the birth of the new year, 
he is wedded when all nature is " white with May ; " 
in the bright golden summer appears the Grail with its 
silver rose-red light ; the Last Tournament takes place 
in the melancholy autumn-tide ; Guimvere flees when 
the mellow purple tint is just beginning* to enfold na- 
ture ; King - Arthur passes away with the old year, just 
as " the wild bells" ring- out, and the Old Year g-ives 
greeting-s to the New. 

Tennyson has treated the subject from a purely alle- 
gorical standpoint. He approached the subject very 
cautiously, we are told, on account of the sacredness 
of it. The best part of the poet's life was spent on it. 
The quest of the Grail symbolizes the striving-s of hu- 
manity after spiritual perfection. It is the last and 
greatest stage of human progress. This achievement 
is individualized in Galahad. He alone of all the 
Knig-hts of the Table Round is permtted to see the Ho- 
ly Grail without fasting-s and prayers ; he alone can 
pass unscathed through the temptations of sense ; he 
only dares to sit in the Siege Perilous, 

" for there 
No man coutd sit but he should lose himself." 

Merlin, who represents the intellect, sat in this perilous 
seat and was lost ; Galahad, who represents the per- 
fect purity which mirrors God, sat and was lost to self 
but was safe in God. 



16 University Magazine 

The Hall at Camelot typifies human development, 
man's beliefs as well as his institutions grow gradual- 
ly. They are built up step by step, just as Merlin 
built the Camelot Hall, zone by zone. It is intellect 
that builds the man as well as the institution. The 
zones of Camelot clearly represent the stag-es of civili- 
zation. The Hall is g-irt around with four great zones 
typifying- the stag-es of man's development. In the 
lowest zone, beasts are slaying men ; in the second, 
men are slaying- beasts ; in the third, man has overcome 
the beast and has grown into the warrior, the perfect 
man ; and in the fourth and last zone are " men with 
growing- wing-s " — the long-ing-s and aspirations of the 
soul. 

In this Hall were also twelve great windows blazon- 
ed with the twelve great battles of Arthur. These 
represent the conflicts of the soul. The poem says all 
the lig-ht that comes into this hall must come throug-h 
these windows. All spiritual lig-ht comes only throug-h 
and after conflict. The soul of man, even as his body, 
must battle ag-ainst its foes. 

One of the windows, the one at the west, remained 
cold and blank in the midst of the royal splendor. 
Counter to this was one rich with "wandering- lines 
of mount and mere," where Arthur found the brand 
Kxcalibur. The eastern window typifies the beg-in- 
ning- of the spiritual career, the western, the end. This 
yet remains for the future to ornament. There are 
still battles to be foug-ht and won, difficulties to be sur- 
mounted ; there is also finally a supreme conflict for 
each soul that aspires, and the western window will 
not be blazoned till the end. 



The Alleg-ory in Tennyson's "Holy Grail" 17 

In this poem the seven deadly sins of the original 
leg-end have been replaced by the disenchantments of 
Percivale. These disenchantments, socalled, are the 
conflicts of self and soul in the spiritual quest. 

After Percivale has begun his search for the Grail, 
his past sinful life looms up before him crying", "This 
quest is not for thee ! " Percivale is typical of a cer- 
tain class of individuals. His search was begun with 
great enthusiasm, but as his ardor cooled, he became 
more mindful of bodily desire and comforts than of his 
spiritual career. He turned away from his path to 
gather the apples of bodily appetite ; while yet he ate 
they fell away to dust leaving him to experience the 
emptiness of human pleasures. He found that love 
and splendor, wealth and fame, are all empty names 
and that reality is found only in the eternal. 

The Grail appears to each man according to his in- 
dividuality. To Galahad, the pure, it appeared clothed 
in white samite accompanied by a soft light of rosy hue 
and silvery breathings of ethereal melody. To Lan- 
celot, who seeks while yet his heart yearns for his 
guilty love, it appears clothed in fiery-flashing flames, 
and the sweet melody of Galahad's vision is changed to 
the thunder of condemnation. 

Gawain represents still another type of human na- 
ture. He entered the quest with great enthusiasm, was 
blown about for a time by the gale, but finally extri- 
cated himself, gave up the search and fell back into 
idleness and ease. Spiritual thing-s disquiet worldly 
minds for only a short time. 

To sum up the meaning of the poem, we see that it 
2 



18 University Mag-azine 

is not the history of one man nor of one generation ; it 
is the universal conception of the relation of the indi- 
vidual to the spiritual, the seen to the Unseen, Hu- 
man nature is the same in all ag-es. What was true of 
Arthur is true of man to-day. The world is full of 
Lancelots and Percivales. No two individuals seek the 
Grail alike ; there is no fixed path for man to approach 
the realization of the spiritual ; each must seek his sal- 
vation according to his individuality. The Gawains, 
Lancelots, Borses and Galahads represent these differ- 
ent individualities. 

These types exist and must as long - as man suffers 
and sins, and hopes and fears. 

Howard Braxton Holmes, '99. 



WILSON CALDWELL. 

E)very one who has attended the University during 
the last thirty years will at once recognize the frontis- 
piece as the faithful old college servant, Wilson Cald- 
well. He served the institution so long - and so well 
that his life deserves special notice. During the past 
summer his many friends were both surprised and 
grieved to hear of his death. 

The services attending his burial were held on the 
9th. of July in the Congregational Church, of Chapel 
Hill, of which he was a member. Rev. Paul L. La- 
Cour, pastor of the congregation, officiated, assisted 
by Rev. John Caldwell. The congregation sang 
several beautiful hymns; Mr. Caldwell ofFered a touch- 
ing and fervent prayer. A chapter of the Bible was 
read by the pastor, and short addresses were delivered 
by him and by Dr. K. P. Battle, at his request. The 
congregation was large, comprising very many of the 
leading white and colored citizens of Chapel Hill. Col. 
J. S. Carr and Dr. John M. Manning came all the way 
from Durham to do honor to their old friend, and also 
Abel Payne, a most worthy colored citizen of Hillsboro. 
The tolling ©f the Universit}' bell was added to that 
of the church. There was a long procession of car- 
riages accompanying the body to its grave in the old 
village cemetery. Many of the faculty and white citi- 
zens joined the procession. As so many of our readers 
are interested in this life-long servant of the Universi- 
ty, we subjoin a pretty full report of Dr. Battle's im- 
promptu address. 



20 University Magazine 

He began by saying - that he could not find it in his 
heart to decline paying- a tribute to the memory of his 
co-laborer and friend, Wilson Caldwell. He then 
read the following - telegram from President Alderman, 
in attendance on a meeting - of the National Teachers' 
Association at Washing-ton: 

Washington, D. C, July 9th, 1898. 
I deplore the death of Wilson Caldwell. He was a faithful servant 
and a gentleman. 

Edwin A. Alderman. 

Dr. Battle then gave a short life-history of the de- 
ceased. 

He was born on the lot now occupied by Dr. Alex- 
ander, on the 17th of February, 1841, and was 
therefore fifty-seven years old on his last birthday. 
His mother was Rosa Burgess, the slave of President 
Swain, who purchased her from the Iredell family. 
The wife of Governor Swain was the grand-daughter 
of Governor Richard Caswell. The father of Caldwell 
was November Caldwell, the slave of President Joseph 
Caldwell, and was generally known by the title of his 
master, "Doctor" November. He had belonged to the 
second wile of President Caldwell, who was the daugh- 
ter of a wealth} 7 and prominent merchant, James Hogg, 
an ancestor of the Binghams, the Norwoods, the Hoop- 
ers and others of the best people of the state. Mrs. 
Caldwell was the widow of William Hooper, son of the 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, and mother 
of the earnest teacher and divine, Dr. William Hooper. 
It thus oppears that the father and mother of Wilson 
Caldwell had been under the training of families emi- 



Wilson Caldwell 21 

nently kind, sensible and courteous, and as we are all 
largely influenced by our surroundings, we can under- 
stand why his manners were always the manners of a 

j f 

gentleman. ^rK 

Wilson was only nominally a slave, as Governor and 
his wife treated their slaves like members of their fam- 
ily. His early years were spent as a companion on 
equal terms with their son Richard. At twelve years of 
age he entered into the service of the University, work- 
ing for the English landscape gardner, Paxton, said to 
have been a relative of the builder of the Crystal Pal- 
ace, Sir Joseph Paxton. He was then promoted to the 
service of the professors in the newly established chem- 
ical laboratory and then to the more responsible duty 
of caring for a portion of the lecture rooms and dormi- 
tories. Beginning when the University was very pros- 
perous, with nearly five hundred students, he continued 
during the hard years of the civil war, and ended in 
1868 when his old master lost his office and soon after- 
ward his life. When Kilpatrick's Cavalry, under Gen. 
S. D. Atkins, approached Chapel Hill, he was selected 
together with the Mayor, Governor Swain, Judge Bat- 
tle and others to meet the troops at the foot of Pine3 7 
Prospect and ask for protection to the property of the 
Unirersity and of the village, which was cheerfully 
granted. 

The authorities who took charge of the University in 
July 1868 offered Caldwell his old place, but with such 
wages as he did not deem adequate. He, therefore, af- 
ter examination, obtained a certificate as teacher of the 
public schools, and taught both in Orange and Pasquo- 



22 University Magazine 

tank. It was at this period that he was a Justice of the 
Peace, and performed the duties of this office with such 
propriety and impartiality that he escaped the hostile 
criticism of all parties in those days when party feeling- 
was exceptional^ fierce. The same may be said of his 
conduct in the office of Commissioner of Chapel Hill, to 
which he was elected while in the service of the Uni- 
versity, an election which caused no hard feeling - al- 
though a professor was on the opposing" ticket. 

It may be said generally that as a citizen his influence 
was for law and order, for smoothing - over the acerbi- 
ties of party politics and promoting- friendliness among 
the classes of the community. 

When not engaged in the services of the public he 
carried on the operations of a small farm which he pur- 
chased out of his saving's. 

At the revival of the University in 1875 there were 
three men in addition to the faculty sought for by the 
trustees, as necessary for its efficient administration. 
These were Andrew Mickle, as Bursar, Foster Utley, 
as head mechanic and Wilson Caldwell, as Janitor. 
They all accepted the offers made them and continued 
in the service of the institution, respected and trusted. 
Mr. Mickle until his removal to Texas, Mr. Utley un- 
til his lamented death, and Caldwell, with the excep- 
tion of about a year spent in Durham, until he, too, was 
called up yesterday to the higher service of the Eter- 
nal Master. He worked for the University over forty 
years ; his father and himself nearly three quarters of 
a century. 

In all the employments which have been named, Cald- 



Wilson Caldzvell 23 

well, in all respects, performed his full duty. There 
can be no higher praise than this. There is a mediae- 
val maxim, "Laborare est orare n — to labor is to pray. 
In other words labor is God's service. An old writer 
says that if two angels should be sent from heaven, one 
to reign on a throne and the other to sweep the street, 
the work of one would be in God's sight equally as im- 
portant, and equally rewarded, as the other. The poet 
Browning sings of a boy following a poor trade in a 
lonely cell and praising God as he toils. ■ Sickness 
comes ; ceased is the labor. The voice of the worship- 
er is stilled. The Archangel Gabriel, 

"Like a rainbow's birth, 
Spreads his wings and sank to earth, 
Entered in flesh the empty cell, 
Lived there and played the craftman well, 
And ever o'er the trade he bent, 
And ever lived on earth content, 
He did God's will : To him all one 
If on the earth or in the sun." 

Our Divine Teacher said: "He that is faithful in 
that which is least is faithful in that which is much." 
Not will be faithful, but is now. The humblest sol- 
dier who with full sense of duty, along with his brave 
comrades, storms the heights of Santiago, is as great 
in God's sight as General Shatter who is praised as 
gaining the victory. The workman on our streets, 
who faithfully earns the wages he receives at sunset, 
is as much honored in the eternal kingdom as President 
McKinley, the executive head of seventy million people. 
The humblest woman who in toil and penury does what 
she can to make her home happy and pure is as great 



24 University Magazine 

in God's sight as the good Queen Victoria, whose do- 
minions encircle the earth. 

All toilers in whatever craft should realize the great 
truth of the words of St. Paul that by faithfulness to 
dut3 T they become fellow laborers with God ; that God 
becomes their partner. 

Wilson Caldwell served the University under five 
administrations. Scores of members of the faculty, 
and thousands of students and alumni have testified 
that he was in all respects and at all times faithful to 
the trusts he assumed. He did his duty promptly, 
punctually, honestly, thoroughly, courteously. He in 
some respects had a most trying situation. He ran the 
risk on one hand of being suspected of aiding, in some 
manner, breaches of the University laws. He ran the 
risk on the other of being- suspected by the stu- 
dents of furnishing hints to the faculty of the names of 
offenders. It is evidence of his strength of character, 
uniform truthfulness, his tact, that he won the respect, 
the confidence and the friendship of all. I am to go fur- 
ther and to state that as far as he could without offence 
he often endeavored by kindly counsel to win into the 
right path young men inclined to take the downward 
step. 

He loved the University. No one was more glad- 
dened than he at its success, no one more grieved at its 
misfortunes. In the dark days of the civil war all no- 
ticed how his heart was sore, whenever tidings came of 
the cutting off of the alumni, who rushed so impetu- 
ously to the front. There is not a name of the nearly 
three hundred on the tablets in Memorial Hall which 



Wilson Caldwell 25 

did not bring to his heart a mournful memory. He fol- 
lowed the careers of the prosperous with the livliest in- 
terest, and they remembered him with sincere affection. 
It was pleasant to witness the hearty handshaking - and 
hear the cordial greetings between him and the alumni 
revisiting- their alma mater. 

Caldwell was happily married to a good and congen- 
ial woman, but has suffered grievous family afflictions. 
Out of twelve children, seven have gone before him, 
five cut off by pulmonary consumption after reaching 
maturity. He bore his trials with fortitude. He sor- 
rowed not as those who have no hope of a hereafter. 
With serene confidence in the wisdom and mercy of his 
Creator he trusted that all the evils and inequalities of 
this world will be rectified in the next. 

"And now my friends," Dr. Battle asked in conclu- 
sion, "in view of these characteristics of the good man, 
whose mortal body lies before us, may we not all of us 
unite with President Alderman and deplore the death 
of this faithful servant and gentleman?" 



ON THE BANKS OF HELM BROOK. 

In one of the most picturesque valleys of a region fa- 
mous for the beauty of its scenery, far back in the Blue 
Ridge mountains, is a little village, called Helm. To 
this isolated spot flock each summer crowds of people 
seeking - refuge from the trials of the world of busi- 
ness. 

A few years ago there lived here two young people, 
Paul Stanly and Martha Winter. He was a typical 
young American farmer, living- a simple life, rejoicing 
in the freedom of his native mountains and in the 
strength to gain his livelihood from their rocky soil. But 
he followed a doubtful and dangerous occupation. 
From the time of the Revolution the farmers of this re- 
gion had been distillers of whiskey. This formed their 
chief means of making a living and they naturally re- 
sented the imposition of a revenue tax. This was levy- 
ing, as it were, upon their very bread, and they seldom 
if ever paid the tax. Between the officers who collected 
this revenue and the farmers there was the most bitter 
enmity. 

Paul Stanly was the descendant of ©ne of the pioneers. 
He received his farm as it was handed down to him 
from his ancestors and kept at their old trade, always 
evading the government officials. 

Martha Winter was a young Scotchwoman who pos- 
sessed all the remarkable traits of Highland ancestors. 
Endowed with a singular beauty, quick-tempered and 
passionate, she loved her friends and hated her ene- 



0?i the Banks of Helm Brook 27 

mies with all the intensity of the Celt. She and Paul 
had grown to manhood and womanhood together .and 
loved each other. Their marriage was now often 
spoken of. 

But fate had decreed that their quiet and happy life 
should not continue uninterrupted. Among those who 
sought repose and pleasure in the mountains of Helm 
came a young- physician, just from his college. He 
was endowed with all of those graces which make a 
man attractive among young* people. At once he be- 
came infatuated b\ r Martha's striking - beauty and soon 
was a devoted suitor. His suit at first, quietl} 7 offered, 
was as quietly rejected. But he persisted. She, as 
firmly, resisted. Till finally his very name became a 
hated sound, and he an unendurable sight. Time passed 
rapidly. Summer g"ave way to Autumn, and Autumn 
was rapidly vanishiug before approachingWinter. Still 
Dr. Phelps lingered in Helm. But he rarely saw Mar- 
tha. She quietly avoi led him. For her marriag-e to 
Paul Stanly was rapidly approaching and her heart 
was still true to him. 

Phelps was enraged that his handsome figure and 
persuasive tongue had no more influence with this sim- 
ple, true mountain girl. " Confound me ! " he exclaim- 
ed. "Jilted for a liquor distiller. Curse him! He 
must get out of my way." 

Late one afternoon a crowd was gathered at the vil- 
lage post-office. It was a typical crowd. There 
also were Paul Stanly and Jesse Phelps. 

Little interest was manifested in the rough conver- 



28 University Magazine 

sation, till suddenly a man rode rapidly to the door of 
the office and in great excitement dismounted. "Hel- 
lo, Jim, what's up," was his greeting - . 

" There's the devil to pay, fellows, over at Pool ville," 
he cried excitedly. "Revenue officers, six of the thieves, 
made a raid out there yesterday, broke up all the stills 
and caug-ht four or five fellows. Shot old John Blake- 
ly, poor fellow, stone dead. Heading" now for Helm." 
He spoke rapidly and was compelled to stop to catch 
his breath. There was interest enough now. At 
least two-thirds of these men distilled whiskey and not 
one paid the tax. 

" That's some sort o' hell," cried a hot-headed young- 
fellow, " but let 'em come. There's rope enoug-h here, 
plenty o' handy limbs and everybody looking" for some 
fun. We'll have a hot old time." 

"You'd better rub up your muskets boys," said the 
messenger. " They are all well armed and mean bus- 
iness." 

The crowd soon dispersed, the men going- their sev- 
eral ways. 

Dr. Phelps strolled down by the brook that ran 
through Helm. 

" All's fair in love and war," he repeated to himself 
ag-ain and ag-ain. 

"And here we have both love and war. Therefore 
it's doubly fair," he commented. "Besides," he con- 
tinued, " this fellow is nothing but a common criminal, 
breaks the law, defrauds the government, and it's my 
duty as a citizen to see the law maintained." Thus he 
reasoned repeating- the same thing- ag-ain and ag-ain. 



On the Banks of Helm Brook 29 

"I'll do it," he finally exclaimed, and turning" 
quickly, he walked rapidly back to the village which 

he reached just before nightfall. 

***** 

All Helm was aroused. Fifty enraged mountain- 
eers, well armed and determined, were searching the 
hills, far and wide. The work of the revenue officers 
was fatal. For Paul Stanly lay on his couch in his 
mountain home, with a bullet in his lungs. By the 
side of the dying man, holding his hand, sat a weeping 
girl. Standing opposite her on the other side of the 
bed, but unnoticed by Martha, was Dr. Phelps, an ill- 
concealed smile playing about his mouth as he watched 
the beautiful mourner before him. He held Paul's oth- 
er hand, silently counting the slowty beating pulse, as 
it ebbed away. Then he left the cottage, because even 
his stony heart could not endure the sight of her 
grief. And she was left alone with all that remained 
of Paul Stanly. 

***** 

The days passed slowly now, while Phelps bided his 
time. He saw only a little of Martha, but showed her 
much sympathy, till she came to regard him almost as 
a good friend. But his patience could not endure the 
strain. He spoke too soon, while sorrow was still 
burning keenly in her heart. The injustice done her 
in supposing her capable of so soon forgetting her dead 
lover, revived all her former dislike. Phelps was told 
that he would be no longer a welcome visitor. 

"All for nothing!" he exclaimed as he angrily paced 
the floor of his room that night. "Are my hands red 



30 University Magazine 

with his blood and I have no reward? No, by heavens! 
There is reward. 'Tis sweeter than love itself. Re- 
venge! Revenge is left." 

He laid his plots deeply. Could he but ruin her rep- 
utation and cause her old friends to fall away, then 
she would seek some one for sympathy. He would be 
her support and his purpose would be accomplished. 

To make the people believe that she betrayed Paul 
Stanly, was the wretch's scheme. For Paul was one 
of their idols and the farmers longed for some one upon 
whom to wreak their vengeance. 

He succeeded and old friends fell away ©ne by one. 
So the months passed wearily by and spring was again 
at hand. All nature seemed rejoicing in its new life. 

Every afternoon Martha went alone to the grave of her 
lost lover. Paul Stanly's last resting place was on the 
steep side of a beautiful hill some distance out of Helm. 
Near by dashed the dark waters of Helm brook. 

One evening, just as the sun was slowly sinking behind 
the tall tree tops and night was hovering over the 
peaceful scene, Martha stood upon the brink of the 
stream, listening t© the dull roar of its waters, as they 
dashed over the huge boulders in their course. The 
soft rock had been cut into b}^ centuries of wear, and 
the water was far below her, beyond her sight. The cut 
was narrow and overgrown with thick bushes. Sharp 
rocks jutted from its sides. All was black and hidden 
below. One knew only of the dashing water because 
of its deep and sullen roar. Martha looked over the 
sharp edge and tried to pierce with her sight the dark- 
ness below. She was suddenly startled by hearing 



On the Banks of Helm Brook 31 

foot-steps at her side. Looking- up she beheld to her 
surprise, Dr. Phelps. It was only a repetition of the 
same old painful scene. But Martha bore it firmly 
with suppressed anger, till Phelps exclaimed in his ex- 
citement, 

"How can you doubt me, Martha? I, alone of all, 
refuted the horrible lies told of you and him who sleeps 
beside us." 

"Believe you, sir," she exclaimed indignantly, "I 
would first believe that he whom your cowardly treach- 
ery laid here in the cold ground, were false. Refuse 
to believe the lies told of me! Indeed, sir, when did a 
liar ever believe himself? Oh! sir, would you kill me 
as you murdered him?" 

She was pale with rage and shook with passion. 

He made one step forward. 

"By G — d! you shall believe," he cried his eyes flash- 
ing with anger. 

"Back sir," she cried. "Not another step, or — " 

But he, in his excitement and passion, heeded her 
not. He now stoo$ dangerously near the deep gorge, 
one foot resting on a loose rock overhanging the water. 
But he did not notice his perilous position, so bent was 
he upon his villainy. He leaned forward to catch at 
her. She in her fury and fear struck him in the face. 
The rock gave way. His heavy body fell crashing 
through the thick bushes, down, down to destruction 
on the sharp rocks below. 

She sprang forward in terror. 

"Oh! what have I done? My God! my God! what 
have 1 done!" she cried aloud in fright. 



32 University Magazine 

Then she leaned over to look, to listen. She could 
see nothing - , hear nothing - , save the angry roar of the 
black water below. 

Dead! and by her hand! A fearful cry rent the air, 
and then her lifeless form fell heavily to the ground. 

When several hours later they found her, she was 
still unconscious. A high fever had laid its deadly 
grasp upon her. 

This continued for two days and then her spirit took 
its fligfht to join Paul's in the mysterious regions be- 
yond. 

And Helm brook flows on, dashing - down the steep 
mountain side, but never a word of the terrible scene 
on its banks that beautiful evening - , years ag"o! The 
old people have passed away and new ones have taken 
their places. And among - these in their busy life the 
love story of Martha Winter is almost forgotten. 

C. '99. 



THE IDYLLIC NOTE IN ADAM BEDE. 

There are, if we adopt a broad scale, four main 
points of view from which a novel may be studied. 
First comes the "narrative", which comprises the con- 
structive principle on which the novel is founded, the 
fundamental plot on which everything- else depends; 
next come the characters, in all their forms and phases, 
including- the methods used in their presentation, and 
the realistic effect produced; under the third division 
may be put the "essence" of the novel, that is to say, 
the underlying - current of thought or purpose which 
prompts the work; and last of all comes that elusive 
and yet ever present element in a writer's work, which 
pervades evey sentence and paragraph, and which we 
call his style. In this discussion of Georg-e Eliot's 
Adam Bede, I shall limit myself to the third division, 
and, by emphasizing - the author's special purpose and 
the idea which she means to convey, shall point out the 
real force and merit of the book. 

Adam Bede was the first long- story that Georg-e El- 
iot wrote. Althoug-h preceded by three shorter stories 
which are now classed together and bear the title, 
Scenes from Clerical Life, it was the first of a series 
of actual novels which appeared between the years 1859 
and 1876. A first impression of the book is apt to be 
misleading. To those accustomed to the author's la- 
ter novels, in which intricacy of plot is the leading - fea- 
ture, the simplicity of Adam Bede, the subordination 
3 



34 University Magazine 

of action to other effects, may seem, at first, surprising - 
and even disappointing - . The main value of the novel, 
however, does not lie in the story, but in the g-limpse 
which it furnishes of iCng-lish country life. The plot 
is of secondary importance, introduced merely as a 
means to an end, and that end is the living - picture of 
the life at Hayslope, which brigiitens and grows dark 
with the chang-es in the fortunes of the characters. 

In Adam Bede, there are many elements which 
make up the sum total of this idyllic picture. Of first 
importance is the life at the Hall Farm, with Mr. and 
Mrs. Poyser in the midst. We seem to smell the 
sweet scent of new mown hay in the meadows, to fell 
the refreshing - coolness and freshness of the dairy as 
Hetty makes the butter, and to see the basket of 
ripe, red currents which Adam bring-s to the house. 
The simplicity and homeliness of the farm life is well 
shown by the description of the Harvest Supper and 
by Mrs. Poyser 's remark to the effect that "it's all 
rigfht and proper for gentle folks to stay up by candle- 
light — they've gr>t no cheese on their minds". The 
scenes at the carpenter's shop and the nig'ht school al- 
so illustrate forms of this rustic life, and, the celebra- 
tion of Arthur Donnithorne's twenty-first birthday 
with a feast, and g-ames, and dancing - , bring-s into 
strong - relief the thoroughly idyllic tenor of the book, 
and suggests Goldsmith's Deserted Village. Another 
element in this picture, which characterizes no one 
scene, but is everpresent, is the Methodist spirit. The 
characters of Seth and Dinah, and the comforting - , al- 
most Christlike words of the latter, are full of a noble 



The Idyllic JSTote in Adam Bede 3£> 

simplicity, which touches the heart and bears with it a 
purifying- power. All these scenes and characteristics 
makeup the main body of the narrative, — the full 
rounded picture, — and in no way contribute to the so- 
called plot. The farm life, the teaching - , the carpen- 
tering - , the rustic festivities, the preaching - on the green, 
are distinct units in one great whole, which is knit to- 
gether by Arthur's love for Hetty, and by Adam's love 
for Hetty and Dinah. 

This idyllic note in Adam Bede illustrates Georgfe 
Eliot's sympathy with the Romantic methods of the ear- 
ly portion of the century, which, with her, are like those 
predominant in Wordsworth's poetry — the love for 
Man and the love for Nature. Georgfe Eliot's love for 
mankind is seen in this very picture of country life, 
where the lower types of human nature are displayed 
with a warmth of affection which constantly borders 
on idealism. The nobility of soul which radiates from 
laborers like Adam and Dinah, is proof sufficient of 
Georgfe Eliot's desire to teach a lesson by the idealiza- 
tion of the simple and the lowly. This deep sympathy 
with mankind is shown, too, in the following - quota- 
tion from Book Second : "Paint us an angel, if you 
can, with a floating - violet robe, and a face pale by the 
celestial lig-ht ; paint us yet of tener a Madonna, turn- 
ing - her mild face upward and opening - her arms to wel- 
come the divine gflory ; but do not impose on us any aes- 
thetic rules which shall banish from the region of Art 
these old women scraping - carrots with their work-worn 
hands, these heavy clowns taking - holiday in a dingy 
pot-house, these rounded backs and striped, weather 



36 University Magazine 

beaten faces that have bent over the spade and done 
the rough work of the world." Another form of this 
love for Man appears in George Kliot's individualism, 
in the passages where she moralizes on the great 
truths which exist for all mankind. Here the great 
truths of love most forcibly stir her heart and cry for 
utterance. Speaking of Seth's love for Dinah, she says, 
"Love of this sort is hardly distinguishable from relig- 
ious feeling. What deep and worthy love is so? Wheth- 
er of woman or child, or art or music. " And later she 
says, "The first glad moment in our first love is a vis- 
ion which returns to us to the last, and brings with it 
a thrill of feeling intense and special as the recurrent 
sensation of a sweet odour breathed in a far off hour of 
happiness." 

George Eliot's attitude toward Nature illustrates 
still more forcibly her Romantic temperment. In 
Adam Bede the descriptions of natural surrounding's 
are not given as a bare realistic stage-setting, as an 
exact reproduction of what the eye alone would see in 
the landscape, but they all have some intimate associa- 
tion with the thougmts and feelings of the characters. 
In every case the scene suggests emotions, which, at 
that moment, fill the heart of some person in the story : 
all Nature serves as a mirror to reflect the workings of 
the soul. The following passage illustrates this : 
"The eighteenth of August was one of those days when 
the sunshine looked brighter in all eyes for the gloom 
that went before. Giand masses of cloud were hur- 
ried across the blue, and the great round hills behind 
the Chase seemed alive with their flying shadows ; the 



The Idyllic Note in Adam Bede 37 

sun was hidden for a moment, and then shone out again 
like a recovered joy * * * * a merry day for 
the children, who ran and shouted to see if they could 
top the wind with their voices. * * * * and 
yet a day on which a blighting - sorrow may fall on a 
man. For if it be true that Nature at certain moments 
seems charged with a presentiment of one individual 
lot, must it not also be true that she seems unmindful, 
unconscious of another?" In this way George Eliot 
weaves human life into Nature, making it symbolical 
of men's inmost thoughts, finding between brooks and 
blossoms, and the human heart, a deep and tender bond 
of sympathy. 

This affection for Man and Nature, then, which may 
be called a result of Romanticism, this devotion to the 
human and the beautiful, is the foremost Element in 
Adam Bede. Later its author became more realistic, 
and strove for instant striking effect ; but here she has 
dwelt at length on characters and scenes, not as a 
means to an end, as in the later novels, but as an end in 
itself. She has painted an idyllic picture composed of 
many parts, every one of which is important to the 
whole, and is presented with delicacy and precision. 

M. 



North Carolina University Magazine. 

PUBLISHED SIX TIMES DURING THE COLLEGE YEAR BY 
THE DIALECTIC AND PHILANTHROPIC LITERARY SOCIETIES. 



PRICE $i.50 PFR YEAR - - - - 25 CENTS PER COPY. 

Qid genes, vol xxix. no. i --October, mi New series, vol. xvi. 

The Board of Editors. 

WILLIAM SIDNEY WILSON, '99, Editor-in-Chief, Di. 
Charles Connor Brown, '99, Di. 
Claude Baker Denson, Jr., '99, Phi. 
John Donnelly, '99, Di. 
Henry Patrick Harding, '99, Phi. 
Howard Braxton Holmes, '99, Phi. 
Francis Moore Osborne, '99, Di. 

WILLIAM EDWARD COX, '99, Business Manager, Phi. 

All literary communications should be addressed to the Editor- 
in-Chief. All business matters to the Business Manager. 
Entered at the Chapel Hill Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter. 

The Editor's Desk. 

With this issue the Magazine makes its appearance 
under new management. The work of the editors and 
contributors of the past year affords us a model by 
which we may shape our course, and we pledge our- 
selves to do our best to make this a Magazine worthy 
of the institution which it represents. 

In the future, as in the past, it will be first of all a 
student Magazine. The main object in a College 



The Editor's Desk 39 

Monthly, as we see it, is not to afford a means of pub- 
lication for the essays and speeches of professional men 
and women of the country, but primarily to serve the 
students, by giving them an opportunity to develop the 
literary spirit they have. 

The Magazine is owoed and managed by the stu- 
dents and their productions always have first claim upon 
its columns. But no publication will be of lasting- value 
which does not contain matter that may in the future 
be used as a reference on some historical, biographical, 
scientific or sociological subject. 

The Magazine will therefore contain in each issue 
two or more such articles either from members of the 
student body or from alumni of the University ; but in 
all cases precedence will be given to student contribu- 
tions when they are of such nature as to warrant their 
publication. Every student who can do so is earnestly 
requested to write, and all articles of merit will be 
published. 

In all the various phases of our College life there has 
been marked progress within the last few years. The 
public debates, which are the outcome of active work 
in the literary societies, have become a prominent and 
helpful feature. Athletics hold a higher place in the 
estimation of our students than ever before ; the Young 
Men's Christian Association has taken a firm stand in 
our life, and so we find all branches of our inner life 
in a progressive state. Should the truly literary side 
of our life be neglected in this general advancement? 
By no means. The Magazine should be the true ex- 
ponent of the literary talent of the under-graduate body 
and just this is what we wish to make it. 



40 University Magazine 

The action of the board of Trustees, which admitted 
women to the higher classes in the University, has been 
universally popular. Last year there were five ladies 
who took advantage of the opportunities offered, and 
this year there are ten. Their work has been of the 
highest character and they have clearly proved that the 
women of our country deserve equal opportunities with 
their brothers along educational lines, and that when 
granted that privilege, they make the best of it. 

The age has clamored for the higher education of 
woman and in the great Universities of the North and 
West this demand has been granted. One University 
after another has removed the conditions that were a 
barrier to woman in seeeking that which rightly 
belongs to her, until almost every great institution in 
the country extends a cordial greeting to every woman 
who wishes to drink deep of the draught of knowlede. 
This plan has been a successful one and the achieve- 
ments of woman in the last generation have been mar- 
vellous. 

The Trustees have limited admission, and rightly 
we think, to the higher classes. For the problems which 
confront woman here require that she should be of ma- 
ture age and experience. Here a new world opens up 
before her, and if she applies herself to the study of 
this new life, her ideas will be more fully developed, 
her feeling for humanity will be deepened, her views of 
life will be broadened and she will become a better and 
nobler woman for having breathed the University at- 
mosphere. 



The Editor's Desk 41 

On account of unexpected and unavoidable hindrances 
this issue of the Magazine has been considerably de- 
layed, but in the future we shall try to come out prompt- 
ly on time. 

I/et all who can write, do so, and in that way do 
away with the greatest hindrance. 

Read what our advertisers have to say. Patronize 
them. Show them that we appreciate their help. 



Book Notice. 



HELBECK OF BANNISDALE. 

Helbeck of Bannisdale, Mrs. Humphrey Ward's lat- 
est novel, is, in reality, the discussion of a religious 
problem. The interest is centred, not on the develop- 
ment of plot, not on the handling - of characters, but on 
the conflict of Catholicism and Freethinking, as em- 
bodied in these characters. 

Alan Helbeck is a Catholic by heredity and by train- 
ing. The impressions of his earliest childhood, the 
collisions with his morose and half-educated father, his 
mother glorying in her faith, his own peculiar temper- 
ment, gloomy and austere, his Jesuit training, all make 
his faith the breath of his life. His home laid bare and 
ruined for the sake of his church, his poverty, his her- 
mit's life, all are the honour marks left by his oppress- 
or. He rejoices in them. Obedience and training are 
his watch-words. 

His sister, deserting her faith, marries a Freethink- 
er, Stephen Fortune ; after the death of her husband, 
she and her step-daughter, Laura, come to live at Ban- 
nisdale. Laura had never read with her father nor 
shared his mind. He was indolent, she was wilful. 
Although he never taught her, yet he made a partisan 
of her, who echoed his hates and prejudices. She is the 
product of environment, representing forces of intelli- 
gence, analysis and criticism, but she is aware of this 



Book Notice 43 

only as they affect her modes of feelingf. She felt as 
she had been born to feel, as she had been taught to 
feel. 

She came to Bannisdale prepared to hate Catholicism 
both on account of her training - , or rather her lack of 
training, and because Alan Helbeck had been ver}^ harsh 
to her father, whose memory she revered. 

And when she got there she found the house and its 
master priest-ridden ; the estate stripped to adorn a 
chapel, the master made to starve for the honor of the 
church, while the priests lived on the fat of the land, 
smiling and smirking and praying and robbing at the 
same time. Laura's love of freedom and life rebels 
against this entire suppression of human feeling, this 
dependence upon the will of another. Her reason de- 
nies it. 

The more she sees of Alan, away from his religious 
creed, the more she likes him. She loves him for his 
chivalrousness, for his consideration of others before 
himself, for his devotion to principle. And Alan loves 
her. 

Such a plot cannot but end in tragedy; the differ- 
ences between them are not mere differences of opinion. 
Alan's mind has a framework, he is wrapped up in his 
faith, without his belief he would no longer be Alan. 
Catholicism is directly contrary to Laura's nature. 
She cannot accept it. The virtues of the nuns are un- 
intelligible to her, their bigotries, obvious; she hates 
the slyness and absurdities of Father Bowles, the 
priestly claims of Father Leadham and their supersti- 
tion. Here is a conflict of instincts, of the deepest ten- 
dencies of two natures. A tragedy must follow. 



44 University Magazine 

Laura, seeing that her lover cannot yield, and wish- 
ing- to spare him future griefs, finally conquers herself 
and leaves. But she has to return to the death-bed of 
her step-mother. And, partly to please Augustina, 
who is dying, and partly because she is overcome by 
her own feelings, she yields and consents to become a 
Catholic. Her step-mother dies before she can tell 
her; she knows now that she cannot do as she prom- 
mised, and in an agony of remorse, fearing that she may 
darken her lover's whole life, she drowns herself. 

It must be confessed, as many people say, that our 
authoress is rather unjust in her delineation of the 
Catholics. The priests and the nuns introduced, are 
supposed to be broad general types, whereas, in 
truth, they are exaggerated individuals. 



College Record. 

The graduating class numbers sixty-two up to date. 

Pres. Alderman delivered a lecture at St. Mary's School, Raleigh, 
N. C. on the evening of October 14. Subject : Cairo and Jerusalem. 

C. C. Brown, Di., H. B. Holmes, Phi., and H. P. Harding, Phi. 
have been elected Magazine Editors to succeed Messrs. Pearson, 
Di., Maddry, Phi., and Sykes, Phi. 

Col. George E. Pocd of General Pitzhugh Eee's staff is on the 
Hill visiting his wife and daughter. 

Mr. R. G. Kittrell, '99, was called home for a few days last week on 
account of the sickness of his uncle, 

Mr. W. E. Cox, '99, attended the convention of St. Andrews Broth- 
erhood recently held in Baltimore. 

Dr. Battle was a member of the committee, representing the North 
Carolina Diocese, to consider the matter of the new Western Diocese 
at the recent Episcopal convention at Asheville. 

Mr. Julian S. Carr, Jr., was elected President of the Athletic As- 
sociation at its recent meeting. 

Mr. F. O. Rogers is temporary Captain of the Foot-ball team. 
Mr. R. A. Winston has been elected Captain of the '99 Base-ball 
team. 

Mr. H. H. Home, '95, now a candidate for the degree of Ph.D. at 
Harvard College, spent a few days on the Hill before returning to 
Cambridge. 

In the Annual Debate between University of Georgia and Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, Mr. E. D. Broadhurst will represent the 
Phi. Society and Mr. T. C. Bowie, the Di. 

The Dramatic Club has re-organized with Mr. Ralph Graves, Di- 
rector ; Mr. Geo. Vick, Manager ; and Mr. Marsden Bellamy, Stage 
Manager. "The Iyittle Rebel" and "Evening 'Dress" will be pre- 
sented this fall. 



46 University Mag-azi7ie 

Mr. Jas. W. Calder of Charlotte succeeds Mr. Mechling, the gym- 
nasium instructor, who has accepted a similar position in Iyouis- 
ville, Ky. 

The University Press Association has been re-organized with W. 
S. Wilson, President ; Henry M. London, Vice President; Everett 
A. Lockett, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Wednesday October 12, was the one hundred-and-fifth anniver- 
sary of the laying- of the corner stone of the University's first build- 
ing, the Old Bast. All work was suspended for the day and Dr. 
Alderman gave a reception in the evening from 8:30 to 12 o'clock 
to the Seniors, Professional students, and the young ladies of the 
University. 

The following young ladies have matriculated and are attending 
lectures in the University : Miss Mary P. Kendrick, Boston, Mass., 
Misses Katherine and Angela Ahern, Hartford, Conn., Miss Bessie 
Staley, Franklinton, N. C, Miss Marcia E. Eathain, Plymouth, N. 
C, Misses Bessie Whitaker and Susan W. Moses, Raleigh, N. C, 
Miss Alice Jones, Goldsboro, N. C, Miss Hanna F. Crawley, Ad- 
riance, Va. , Miss Sallie W. Stockard, Saxapahaw, N. C. 

The Senior Class has elected the following officers : President, 
J. S. Carr, Jr. ; Vice President, W. S. Crawford ;. Secretary and 
Treasurer, J. E. McFadyen ; Orator, T. C. Bowie ; Statistician, W. 
E. Cox ; Prophet, H. B. Holmes ; Historian, J. E. Eatta ; Captain 
of Foot Ball team, R. A. Winston ; Manager of Foot Ball team, J. 
R. Carr. The office of Poet was left open to competition. 

Prof. Holmes addressed the Wautauga club in Raleigh on the 
evening of October 14. From Raleigh he went to the Trans-Miss- 
issippi Exposition, where he is one of the Judges of the mineral de- 
posits. Before returning to the Hill he will go to New Mexico to 
examine the Mica deposits for the United States Government. 

Dr. Thos. Hume delivered one of the lectures in the course at the 
Southern Biblical Assembly held at Knoxville, Tenn., June 16-26, on 
"The Bible and Shakespeare." It was pronounced by the leading 
papers of Knoxville to be the best lecture of the Assembly. He has 
been invited to repeat it in Washington, D. C. this month. Before 
the State Normal School held at the University of Tennesse, he 
spoke on "The Teacher's Use of His Mother Tongue," June 20. 
And delivered addresses on "Foreign Missions and Education" be- 
fore the Mount Zion District Association, October 12, 



College Record 47 

President Alderman, while attending- the National Educational 
Association at Washing-ton, D. C. during the summer was appoint- 
ed a member of the National Council, and was also one of the fifteen 
educators selected to consider the question of establishing- a Nat- 
ional University. There were three Southern men on this commit- 
tee, the other two being Hon. William E. Wilson and Dr. J. L,. M. 
Curry. He delivered an address at the dedication of Science Hall 
at Guilford College, May, 21. At Hickory he spoke in behalf of 
Graded Schools, July 30., and next day spoke at Newton on "Public 
Education." He addressed the State Farmers Alliance at Hillsboro 
August 12. 

The work in the L/iterary Societies so far has been of a high 
grade. Many new men have joined, and everything considered, 
society prospects are bright. 

The first meeting of the Philological Club for the year 1898-99, 
was held in Mr. Alexander's study, on Tuesday September 27. 
The following papers were read : — 

1. Mr. Harrington : — Some Studies in the Elegiac Strophe. 

The characteristics and peculiarities of the Elegiac Strophe in the 
works of Catullus, Tibullus, Propertius and Ovid were discussed, 
and the data brought into statistical form. 

2. Mr. Alexander: — Uniformity in the Use of Grammatical Terms. 
An urgent statement was made of the necessity for consistency 

in the names of cases, tenses, declensions, conjugations, and lan- 
guage constructions. A plea was made for the adoption of the 
clearest and simplest terms, especially with regard to conditions, 
and a recommendation offered for unanimity of use, and for minute 
explanation of elementary principles in class work. 

The following officers were elected for the year. 

President, Mr. Hume. Vice President, Mr. Iyinscott. Secretary 
and Treasurer, Mr. May. 

ELISHA MITCHELJv SOCIETY. 
The following officers have been elected : 
President, Prof. Gore. 
Vice-President, Dr. Mangum. 
Permanent Secretary, Dr. Venable. 
Recording Secretary, Dr. Baskerville. 

The second meeting was held Tuesday October, 11th, at 7:30, p. 
m. in Person Hall. 



48 University Magazine 

The following papers were read : 

"Natural Science as Interpreted by Lucretius;" Dr. F. P. Ven- 
able. 

"Notes on Some of the Colony Breeding- Birds of Eastern North 
Carolina ;" Mr. T. G. Pearson. 

Another paper, "Notes from the Jubilee Meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science," by Dr. Chas. Basker- 
ville, was on the programme but as the hour was consumed by the 
two first papers it was postponed until the next meeting. 

This society issues a semi-annual journal which has quite an ex- 
tensive circulation. Among its exchanges are over a hundred for- 
eign publications. 

Y. M. C. A. 

The officers are as follows : Pres. T. G. Pearson ; Vice-Pres. F, 
W. Coker ; Recording Secty., H. Anderson; Corresponding Secty., 
W. F. Cox ; Treasurer, A. J. Barwick. The association gave its 
annual reception to the new men on the evening of September 16, 
from 8:30 to 11. Interesting talks were made by Pres. Alderman, 
Dr. Hume, Dr. Battle, Mr. H. H. Home and Mr. Pearson. 

Several new men have become active members and the devotional 
meetings are well attended. 

SHAKFSPFRF CLUB. 

The first meeting for the session was held in the Chapel on Mon- 
day night October 17. The programme was of singular interest. 

"The Famous Victories of Henry V," by Mr. M. Bellamy Jr. very 
concisely and yet definitely compared this crude chronicle play with 
the marvellous trilogy, (The Henry Plays of Shakespere) and dem- 
onstrated the master's dramatic skill. 

"The Douglas and Percy in the Ballad and in Shakespere," by 
Mr. R. D. W. Connor, happily identified the Percy as the same Hot- 
spur and showed that the Douglas was the type and not the person 
preserved in the drama. 

"The Drayton Ballad of Agincourt" was presented by Dr. Hume 
with striking inquiry as to the influence of the ballad on the play 
or vice versa. 

Mr. Archibald Henderson gave a valuable paper on "The True 
Story of Joan of Arc," reviewing Schiller's "rose color" drama, the 
pseudo-Shakespere drawing of Henry VI. Part 1. and the psycho- 
logical romance of Mark Twain, helping us to see the real Maid 
of Orleans, 



Alumni Notes. 



Rev. Geo. Henry Crowell, of. the Methodist Conference, Ph.B. 1892, 
is Sup't. of the Graded Schools of High Point. 

Mr. Edwin Clarke Greg-ory, A. B., 1896, who has been teaching in 
one of the best schools of Virginia, has returned to U. N. C. and en- 
tered the Law Class. 

Archibald Henderson, A. B., '98, is Instuctor of mathematics in 
U. N. C. 

Walter Rice Thomson, B. S., '98, is one of the Principals of the 
Graded Schools of Greensboro. 

Win. McEJntire Walton, Jr., of the Junior Class of '98 — '99, is a 
corporal in the 2nd Regiment, N. C. Volunteers. 

Wm. Willis Boddie, B. Lit., '97 is teaching in the Louisburg 
Academy. 

Henry Groves Connor, Jr., B. S., '97, is law partner with his fath- 
er, Judge Connor, at Wilson. 

Burton Craig, A. B., '97, is a member of the Faculty of the Hor- 
ner School, Oxford. 

Wm. Stamps Howard, B. S., '97, has obtained his Law license 
and will settle in Tarboro. 

Wm. Cobb Lane, A. B., '97, is gaining laurels as a teacher in the 
Graded School at High Point. 

Sylvester Browne Shepherd, A. B., '97, is partner with his father, 
Ex-Judge Shepherd, and often appears before the Supreme Court. 

George Bahnson Pond, of the Junior Class, '97 — '98, has obtained 
a 2nd Lieutenancy in the regular Army on competitive examination 
and at last accounts was fighting Indians. 

Walter Vernon Brem, Jr., B. S., '96, is an officer of the 2nd Regi- 
ment, N. C. Volunteers. 



50 University Magazine 

Thomas Clarke, B. S., '96, is Instructor in the Chemical Depart- 
ment U. N. C. He has obtained his Ph.D. degree in Germany. 

Wescott Roberson, A. B., ,96, is law partner of John A. Barringer 
Esq., at High Point. 

Joseph Harvey White, B. S., '96, is in the cotton manufacturing 
business at Graham. 

James Samuel White, A. B., '96, is engaged in furniture manufac- 
turing at Mebane. 

Wm. H. McDonald, A. B., '87, is Cashier of a Bank at Enfield, of 
which he is a large stockholder. 

John Gilcnrist Mc Cormick, A. B., '98, is Principal of the Acade- 
my at Monroe. 

George McCorckle, A. B., '78, who has held an office under the 
g-overnnient, has joined his father, ex-Judge M. S. McCorckle, in the 
practice of haw at Newton. 

Herbert Bemerton Battle, B. S., '81, late director of the State Ex- 
periment Station and State Chemist, is President of a large Fertil- 
izer Manufacturing Company at Winston, with a capital of $100,000, 
"The Southern Chemical Company." 

W. J. Brogden, '98, has a position as teacher of English and Math- 
ematics in the well known Morson and Denson School in Raleigh. 

W.T. Usry, '98, is principal of The Sanford High School in Moore 
County. 

Darius Eatman, '97, who conducted a most successful school at 
Franklinton for the past year is teaching Latin and Mathematics 
in the Binhgam School at Asheville. 

The William Bingham School has been fortunate in securing Chas- 
Johnston, '98. 

I. E. D. Andrews, '98, is Principal of Parmer's Institute, Randolph 
Co. 

John Knox Hair, A. M., '98, has charge of the Union Institute, 
Unionville, N. C. 

"Dick" Busbee, '98, is purusing a business course at Poughkeep- 
sie. 



Alumni Notes 51 

Miss Stockard, '98, will spend another year on the "Hill." This 
year she will teach in the Chapel Hill Shool. The Institution is to 
be congratulated. 

T. J. Creekmore, '97, is Superintendent of the Graded School in 
Clinton, N. C. 

P. C - Whitlock, '98, and J. D. Parker, 98, are taking- Eaw this year. 

Wingate Underhill, '97, is engaged in teaching at Bayboro, in the 
Pamlico Institute. 

"Dick" Lewis, '98, is taking a course in stenography preparatory 
to entering business. •'Dick" spent a few days on the Hill recently. 

Jack Horney, '97, is working now for his master's degree. 

MARRIAGES. 

In Trinity Church, Durham, N. C, on Sept. 14, '98, Benjamin 
Y» r yche, our former librarian, now librarian U. of Tex., was united 
in marriage to Miss Knowltoa Woodward. Prof. Harrington of the 
University presided at the organ. The ceremony was performed by 
Rev. Mr. Cole. We extend congratulations. 

We clip the following from the Norfolk-Virginian: — Prof. T. Jud- 
son Creekmore and Miss Mattie Keeting were married at London 
Bridge Church, Princess Anne County, Tuesday afternoon, in the 
presence of a large gathering of friends and guests. After the mar- 
riage the couple left for a northern tour. 

ROBERT PAINE DICK L,. L. D. 

Died at his home in Greensboro, N. C. on Sept. 13, 1898 — Rob't 
Paine Dick. 

Rob't was the second son often children of John McClintock Dick, 
Judge of Superior Court of N. C, and Parthenia P. Williams, of 
Person County, 

After preparation for college in Caldwell Institute. Greensboro, 
he entered the Sophomore class at the University. 

Here he was an active member of the Dialectic Literary Society. 

Graduating - with distinction, in 1843 he began the study of law 
under his father and Mr. Geo. C» Mendenhall. 

In 1845 he began the practice of law at Wentworth, Rockingham 
County. Three years later he married Mary E. Adams of Pittsyl- 
vania Co., Va. and removed to Greensboro. 



52 University Magazine 

While a yong lawyer he became a member of the Democratic 
Party and made many political speeches on the Tariff, State rights 
etc. 

In the Democratic National Convention at Baltimore 1852 he voted 
for the nomination of Franklin Pierce and W. B. King-, and return- 
ing - home carried his state for the Democratic nominees. For this 
service he was made U. S. District Attorney. 

Eater he attached himself to the Stephen A. Douglas party and 
after its defeat, Judge Dick allied himself with the Union, or Conser- 
vative Party. 

When the war began he and his party went with the state and he 
was elected a member of the Convention of \L861. 

After the war President Johnson tendered him the office of U. S. 
District Judge which he accepted but soon resigned. 

In 1848 he was elected a lustice of the Supreme Court of N. C. 
which he resigned in 1872 in order to accept the Judgeship of U. S. 
District Court for Western District of N. C, tendered him by Gen. 
Grant. This he held until a short time before his death, when on 
account of his physical inability brouuht on by old age, he was 
obliged to resign. Mr. Dick not only won fame as a judge, lawyer 
and orator, but also as a writer. -In this line the literary study of the 
Bible was his favorite subject. 

The University and the entire state feel that in his death they 
have lost a strong friend and an influential citizen. 

RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT. 

Philanthropic Hau, 
Sept. 24, 1898. 

Whereas, Almighty God in his divine power has seen fit to remove 
from time to eternity, our late friend and fellow-member Mark V. 
Farmer, therefore be it 

Resolved I. That while bowing in humble submission to the will 
of Him, who hath the power to give and to take away, we, the mem- 
bers of the Philanthropic Society cannot but lament our bereave- 
ment. 

Resolved II. That we offer our warmest sympathy to the family 
and friends of the deceased, and while we would not intrude upon 
the sanctity of domestic grief, we would point them to that Eternal 
Source from which alone the crushed heart can derive consolation. 

Resolved III. That these resolutions be placed upon the minutes 



Alumni Notes 53 

of our Society, that a copy of the same be sent to the bereaved fam- 
ily, and also that a copy be sent to the Wilson Times, the Wilson 
News, the University Magazine and the Tar Heel with a 
request to publish them. 

N. U. Ward ) 
D. P. Parker >■ Committee. 
J. K. Dozier ) 

Dialectic Hall, 
Sept. 24, 1898. 
Whereas, God in his infinite power has seen fit to remove from 
our midst our beloved friend and fellow member Judge Robt. P. 
Dick. Be it resolved. 

1st. That the Dialectic Society has in him lost a true member 
and an influential supporter. 

2nd. That we extend to his bereaved family our sincere and 
heartfelt sympathy in their great loss. 

3rd. That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the family of the 
deceased, a copy be entered on the minutes of the Dialectic Society, 
and also they be published in the Tar Heel and the University 
Magazine. 

Claude B. McIver ) 
W. Gilmer Wharton > Committee. 
Fred J. Coxe ) 



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North Carolina University Magazine. 

010 series, vol xxix. no. 2 - -December, ink. New series, vol xvi. 



THE GREATER UNITED STATES. 



In view of the fact that, practically, all of our terri- 
torial expansion — from the Everglades to Puget Sound 
—has come about under Democratic administration, it 
behooves that party to act prudently in the present 
juncture. 

In 1802 the new bought land of Louisiana was as 
far from Washington City as Manilla is today. Steam 
and electricity have done the work. There is the same 
warrant in the Constitution for the acquisition of the 
Phillipine Islands as there was for annexing Texas or 
buying Louisiana. "The Congress shall have power 
to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations 
respecting the territory or other property belonging to 
the United States." So speaks the Constitution ; and 
since the Congress has assumed to build railroads, buy 
vast areas of land and conduct great centennial and 
other shows, is it necessary to split hairs as to its 
power to govern Porto Rico or any other territory? 
1 



55 University Magazine 

Had I been asked twenty years ago if the United 
States should annex Hawaii or Cuba, I would have 
answered "No. " But twenty years ago there had 
been no Haymarket riot in Chicag-o, Progress and 
Poverty was but in its infancy, nor had Looking 
Backward startled the world. Today even such a 
lover of America as Goldwin Smith admits that he can 
hear the rush of waters as the} 7 draw near the cata- 
ract, and the most hopeful seem to find no hope except 
in a strong* centralized government with vast armies to 
sustain it. A broken reed indeed ! 

We ought to consider this momentous question — The 
Greater United States — from two points of view. How 
will the floating- of the Stars and Stripes over seven 
million Phillipenos affect them, and how will it affect 
us? Ivet it not be hastily supposed that because 
Rome's moral tone was lowered by contact with her 
captured territory that therefore the United States 
will suffer from like causes. Thousands of miles of 
salt air blow fresh between Manilla and San Fran- 
cisco. Let the over cautious study England's g-overn- 
ment of India. Three-fifths of the people of Europe 
are embraced in the tribes of India, and yet England 
governs them all with great profit, little friction and a 
positive tonic-effect upon the national life and charac- 
ter. God speaks through the bullet as well as in 
the earthquake and the thunderbolt. The first blast 
from Joshua's Rain's Horn was not more ominous to 
the powers of darkness in Jericho than was the roar of 
Dewe} T 's guns at Manilla to the superstitions of that 
island. Civilization and Christianity will not soon 



The Greater United States 56 

encircle the globe except the way be first prepared by 
the sword. Bonaparte and Cromwell were no less a 
part of the Divine Economy than Luther and Wesley. 
When England shall have run her railroad from Cairo 
to the Cape of Good Hope, when Japan and England 
and the United States tear away the wall from around 
China and when the Powers shall remove the unutter- 
able Turk from Europe, "Thy Kingdom come" will 
not be far distant. Viewed therefore from a Cuban 
or Porto Rican or Phillipine point of view, is it assum- 
ing too much to say that we should heed their cry 
when they pathetically say, "Annex us and give us 
your civilization and your Christianity and ere long we 
too will be worthy members of your great republic?" 
Is it objected that this will be a departure from the 
traditions of the past and that we will become entan- 
gled in European politics? Possibly so, and yet there 
be worse things than these troubles. The United 
States has reached a crisis in its progress. The vir- 
gin vsoil is almost used up. The millionaire and the 
tramp jostle each other. The palace and the hut are 
side b} 7 side. The tide of immigration is beginning to 
flow back from the Pacific. And men are beginning 
to ask what is a civilization worth that produces so 
many abnormally rich and so many paupers. These 
conditions must be met and they must be changed. 
Income and inheritance taxes, a proper adjustment of 
the tariff and, above all, of our finances, and other 
remedial legislation will accomplish much good, par- 
ticularly in reducing vast fortunes that now inflame 
the people. But these reforms are slow in coming and 



57 University Magazine 

they may not greatly better the condition of the labor- 
er and toiler. The good thing's of life may be likened 
to a cake. This cake is just large enough to satisfy 
two dozen people. Until quite recently only these two 
dozen knew of its existence. But now people's eyes 
have been opened by universal and often by compulsory 
education and quite a large company see the cake. 
And the last man of them is going to have his part or 
know the reason why. We must make the cake lar- 
ger. America must expand. The time has about 
come of which Macaulay wrote to Randall, when the 
politician is asking the multitude of voters why any- 
body should be permitted to drink champaigne and to 
ride in a carriage while thousands of honest folks are 
in want of necessities. That other day may come 
when, "in the State of New York a multitude of peo- 
ple, no one of whom has had more than half a break- 
fast, or expects to have more than half a dinner, will 
choose a legislature. ' ' And the day is hastening because 
the will of the people is being stifled by the corrupt 
use of money. 

The United States must meet these conditions in one 
of two ways : she must return to the pastoral state, by 
cutting the telegraph wires, removing the railroads, 
destroying the ships, changing - the sea into one of fire, 
depleting the cities and building up the rural districts 
again (and this wa} 7 is impossible), or else she must 
keep up with the procession of nations. The survival 
of the fittest is truer of nations than of individuals. 
The ultima ratio of nations is physical force. The 
contest is sharp and merciless. No nation can hold 



The Greater United States 58 

her supremacy except she control the ocean. The 
river has had its day and so has the inland sea. A wri- 
ter has well called the first the -potamic stage, the sec- 
ond the thalassic stage and the third the oceanic stage. 
This is the evolution of nations. Just as the great and 
successful merchant, or railroad magnate, or manufac- 
turer must have a nerve of steel and the power to 
organize and unify, so the great nation must have de- 
pendencies and trade relations and coaling stations the 
whole world round. As the former spares no expense 
to advertise his business and display his wares, neither 
should the latter. 

What wonderful possibilities have we in Cuba, Porto 
Rico, the Phillipines and Hawaii ! ! The Phillipines 
alone are almost as large as Japan. Their export trade 
is now as large as was Japan's twenty years ago. The 
soil is fertile and rich mineral deposits abound. Thith- 
er may go the aspiring and venturesome men of our 
country ; while the Navy and Army will open up vast 
avenues of honor and fame to thousands of our people. 
America is a great manufacturing nation. She needs 
a market for her products. The tropical fruits and 
the splendid products of Cuba and Porto Rico will soon 
be exchanged for the manufactured goods of the United 
States. The rich tide of trade between these islands 
and Spain has been severed and we are to be the gainers. 
Soon the Nicaraguan canal will be cut and then the 
great Northern and Middle States and our own South- 
ern States as well w T ill be customers of our eastern 
islands, as they will be of us. When England lost her 
thirteen American Colonies the blow fell heavily, not 



59 University Magazine 

because of diminished revenue or taxes — this was but a 
trifle — but the great and irreparable damage was in 
her lost trade. What, with Hawaii as a half-way sta- 
tion, with England and Japan as allies and with our 
rich possessions at Manilla, the Pacific Ocean is ours. 
Of the five great countries — Holland, Spain, Portu- 
gal, France and England — that entered the race two 
centuries ago for territorial acquisition, only the two 
last retain their position among first class nations. 
The expansion of England began with Elizabeth and 
Cromwell. This expansion has made England the 
mistress of the seas and the admired of nations. The 
same fight that waged for the possesion of territory in 
North America in the eighteenth century is repeated to- 
day in Africa. England is saying to the French in terms 
not to be misunderstood, "Khalifa is ours and not 
yours." — While Russia and Japan and other great 
European powers are eagerly watching opportunities 
to develop and enlarge their trade relations. What 
has the United States been doing in this regad? She 
has been content to boast of her soil, her climate, her 
resources and her institutions. Can these avail her 
much longer? Her resources are exhausting, her soil 
is wearing" out, her cities are crowded with vast 
swarms of hungry people, while her political institu- 
tions are strained almost to the breaking point. A few 
more panics such as was ushered in in 1893, and a few 
more political contests, with the same popular discon- 
tent at the result, as 1896 witnessed, and what may 
we fear? Will it it be disorder and anarchy? Will it 
be a despotism and a Napoleon? Many of these evils 
may be averted by the drastic action of our law mak- 



The Greater United States 60 

ing powers. But the improvement will not be perma- 
nent and may not reach the people until the United 
States comes out from her isolation and enters the 
marts of the world. We need a business and a brainy 
gfovernment. The methods of a hundred years ago 
are not the methods of today. They differ as widely 
as Thomas Jefferson's nav}% which he pulled ashore 
and sheltered when not in use, differed from the Ore- 
gon and the Texas. 

One hears, nowadays, a thousand solutions for the 
troubles which exist between labor and capital, be- 
tween rich and poor, the dicussion finally ending* in the 
statement that the practice of the virtues of the Man 
of Gallilee alone can bring - peace and content. Stated 
another wa} T this means that when the world is good 
it will be good. The problem is hard of solution. And 
yet we know that while England is civilizing and hu- 
manizing and christianizing 350,000,000 souls in India, 
and while her sails whiten every sea and her trade re- 
lations bring pounds, shillings and pence to London 
and Liverpool and make these cities the financial ba- 
rometers of the world, the United States is wringing 
her hands and rolling her great big eyes and wonder- 
ing what Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln 
would have done with Cuba and the Phillipines! 

Isn't it humiliating that we must get the price of cot- 
ton from Liverpool and the rate of interest from Lom- 
bard Street? 

What we need is a broader — a world policy — for 
America- We need America for Americans, but we 
sorely need the islands of the sea for America. 

Robert W. Winston. 



• A SENIOR'S FANCY. 



It was a clear night in June, the night before com- 
mencement day, 189 — . The heavens that night seemed 
to have decked themselves with their brightest jewels, 
some beaming with a soft an J tranquil light, some 
twinkling and sparkling. It was a fitting time for 
pleasant recollections of past achievements, and for 
building castles of fancy in the future. 

A tall powerfully built senior came out from the Old 
West, humming softly, 

"One by one I'll forge the links 
Of a golden chain of fame," 
and strolling across the campus threw himself on the 
bench under the old white-oak that has been blackened 
about the bottom by fire. His huge frame and air of 
conscious power bespoke his giant strength of mind 
and body. Last fall he was the star of the 'Varsity 
foot-ball team; to-morrow he would graduate with sum- 
ma cum laude, and then after a year at Harvard, 
would go to the Old World for travel and for his Doc- 
tor's degree. He was the pride of the college, intellect- 
ually and physically. In the soft moonlight he sat 
and blew curling rings of blue smoke from a fragrant 
cigar, and mused over his fortune-favored past, and in 
his imagination painted his future in brilliant hues — 
the four years in which he would so greedily drink in 
the accumulated knowledge of the ages, the storied 
lands of history and legend that he would visit, and 



A Senior's Fancy 62 

then the fame which he felt must come to him in his 
work in science, which was his chosen field. Here 
man had already made marvelous achievements. As 
he thought how one by one nature was revealing- her 
truths to these seekers, he felt that all problems must 
in time be solved, that nothing - was impossible to the 
mind of man, the noblest creature of creation. 

He was reclining - with his face towards the planet 
Jupiter and as he viewed the star he wondered if the 
people up there had yet made such progress as had we. 
"It can not be," he theorized, "they are too far away 
from the sun; theirs must be a cold, cheerless world, 
and their people must be without the intellect and the 
keen insight into thing's which we have. I would that 
I could be transported across the heavens to-nig-ht and 
give to them some of our vast accumulation of knowl- 
edge." In a listless way he sat dreamily gazing- at the 
star, with an eccentric long-iug - to go on this mission of 
aid to the people of our great sister planet, when sud- 
denly there came down from the heavens an oddly built 
vessel out of which stepped a }^oung* man who towered 
far above him in statue, who said in a deep, command- 
ing - voice, "1 have come from his Excellency, the pres- 
ident of the republic of Jupiter, to conve} 7 you thither, 
that you may give to our people some. of the boundless 
knowledge of this planet. Enter my vessel." Invol- 
untarily he followed him, for there was an irresistible 
personality about the colossal envoy, a subtle magnet- 
ism, which forced him to obey, as a child his elders. 
The vessel rose and took its course to the west, with 
a speed like but our language furnishes no simile. 



63 University Magazine 

Soon the earth was seen only as a bright planet like 
the others, as on, on they went, past the crescent 
moon, past the planet Mars, and presently they were 
floating- over Jupiter. His Jupiterian companion low- 
ered their vessel, and they traveled near the surface 
until they reached the capital city, which in their lan- 
guage was called Ailaluol. He was at once conducted 
to the Executive Mansion and into the presence of the 
president, who, when he had cordially welcomed him, 
invited him to proceed with the object of his mission. 
For an hour or more he spoke briefly of our achieve- 
ments in science, art, literature. When he had finish- 
ed, the president ordered an attendant to bring in the £ 
ray machine, the rays of lig'ht from which, he explain- 
ed, traversed space instantaneously, and by the use of a 
peculiar refractory substance, adjustable for different 
distances, an object, at any distance, could be seen its 
normal size, with perfect distinctness. Taking this 
he scanned the sky for a few moments, fixed it upon 
the earth and told his visitor to look. The learned 
senior could scarcely believe what he saw was not an 
illusion! Before him were the University grounds, 
which a few hours before he had left. Under the old 
Davie Poplar he saw a group of his classmates smoking 
their last pipe together. 

With the instrument fitted with another device for 
curving the rays of light at the desired distance away, 
he was shown the lands of the Orient. Another ma- 
chine was produced which was used to record sound, at 
any distance away. With this and the % ray machine 
he could see and hear what was taking place at the 
commencement exercises. 



A Senior 's Fancy 64 

Through the£ ray machine they viewed the planets, 
one by one. On Mercury the scene of splendor-, which 
met his eyes was one before which the tropical beau- 
ties of our own clime pale into insignificance. The 
whole planet seemed a veritable "hothouse tilled with 
sunbeams." The oceans were as clear as the crystal- 
line pools of our tropical climes, the mountains were 
covered to their summits with a vegetation of surpass- 
ing beauty. Bird and beast and flower, it seemed, were 
well nigh unto perfection, but one thing was lacking — 
no man dwelt there. 

On Saturn great air ships were plowing between the 
planet and her rings. Men were crossing back and 
forth and travelling over the land with the ease and 
speed of a swallow, in a motor machine propelled by a 
power, he was told, somewhat similar to electricty. 

As the planets receded from the sun he saw a power- 
ful increase in the intellectual and physical develop- 
ment of man. On the nearer planets man was little 
developed from the higher types of brute life; on the 
distant ones, he reached his most perfect development, 
in statue like the fabled giants of old, in wisdom al- 
most a demi-god. 

For an hour or more he talked with the great man 
of Jupiter who explained to him many of their inven- 
tions. 

The Menograph (the English name) was a machine 
for recording thought. The operator placed his hands 
on a sensitive plate, and through the nerves of the 
hand the train of thought was taken up and recorded 
on a scroll. Their apparatus for communication at 



65 University Magazine 

long" distances, for locomotion, in fact for almost every 
thing whose performance it was of importance to ex- 
pedite, was equally as efficient. 

As His Excellency, the president, explained one 
after another of these machines of every day use, 
he contrasted them with the inventions of our own 
land— — but suddenly across the campus came the yell, 

"Hackie, hackie, hackie. 

Sis boom bah," and with a start he awoke from a 

weird dream. 

Alonzo E. Gates, '00. 



LIFE'S GOLDEN AGE. 

The autumn leaves before they fade 

- Are lovely to behold ; 
The evening - sun in grandeur clad 
Sinks in a blaze of gold. 

So is the evening - time of life 

The loveliest, grandest stage ; 

And naught in all the world excels 
The beaut}- of a ripe old age. 

'98. 



ASSUMPTIONS OF SOCIALISM. 

[FROM A CHRISTIAN POINT OF VIFW.] 



Socialism is not the "burning- question of the day" 
as it was a few years ago. The field of international 
politics has focused the eyes of the world with absorb- 
ing - interest. Yet the influences and forces of social- 
ism are doing- their inevitable work, and scholars and 
students in the colleg-es and universities throug-hout 
the world are still strug-g-ling- with the task of solv- 
ing- the economic and political problems, which it has 
raised. Thoug-h there is not much to fear from social- 
ism in this country so far, yet the increasing- interest 
with which, we may say, all classes are beg-inning" to 
study the social problem, is fair ground of presump- 
tion .that socialistic principles will eventually, more 
than they have in the past, influence the politics and 
social status of this, as they have of other countries. 
Americans are disposed to laug-h at the manifestos of 
the leaders of this new order, to ridicule their conclu- 
sions, and to check with the violence of the law their 
methods. Behrens utters a note of warning - ag-ainst 
this attitude. After setting- forth in strong- colors the 
dang-ers possible, especially to American institutions, 
when the masses have once imbibed socialistic prin- 
ciples, he says, that we make a great mistake if we im- 
agine that soft speeches will quiet the prophets of the 
new order. They laug-h at you if you protest ag-ainst 
their methods while you tacitly acknowledg-e the truth 



67 University Magazine 

of their principles, for their methods are only their 
principles made effective. We must either prove the 
socialist wrong" in his assumptions or granting - his pos- 
tulates, go with him as far as the arg-ument may carry 
us. Especially does this apply to Christians who can 
acquiesce in no principle, lend sanction to no methods 
which do not fully accord with the tenets of theistic 
and Christian belief. Though we may agree with Bos- 
souet, "The murmurs of the poor are just, wherefore 
then, O Lord, this inequality?" yet the restitution 
must be made along - the lines of higher Christian devel- 
opment. 

What then is socialism? A puzzling - question. 

There are almost as many different socialistic theo- 
ries as there are socialist writers. There is state so- 
cialism and communistic socialism, socialism evolution- 
ary and revolutionary (commonly called anarchism), 
Christian socialism and political — to be viewed from 
the standpoints of economics, politics, ethics. 

1. Socialism in its broadest sense is any scheme for 
preventing - too great an inequality in social conditions, 
in whatever way this may be effected, whether by state 
or church action, or philanthropy, or voluntary effort 
of individuals. This phase is as old as history. 

2. Socialism is defined as a gfeneric term which ex- 
presses certain modes of interference by the state, in 
relations between producers and consumers. 

3. Socialism is a system of economics and politics in 
which the production of wealth is carried on solely by 
the state as the collective owner of the land and instru- 
ments of production, instead of by capitalists, employ- 



Assumptions of Socialism 68 

ers, and companies; while the distribution of that 
wealth is made by the state also on some assumed 
principle of justice, which gives to each a share in pro- 
portion to. his work. 

This form of socialism, called "Collectivism", is the 
most scientific and logical, and as it is the latest devel- 
opment, the assumptions which are involved in its po- 
litical and economic creed are no doubt those to be con- 
sidered. Therefore in the following discussion the 
term is used in the last sense only or as synonymous 
with collectivism. 

Where then must we look for the assumptions of 
collectivism? They will be found to underlie the va- 
rious programmes of the labor parties and their manifes- 
tos issued at various times, and may all be traced back 
to the writings of Karl Marx the great German expos- 
itor of socialistic thought in its philosophic guise. 
The following doctrines constitute the chief postulates 
of modern socialism as generally agreed upon: 

(1) That labor is the source of all value and there- 
fore the working man is entitled to the products of his 
labor. This is the fundamental postulate of Marx's 
philosophy and the corner stone of socialism. If it 
crumbles the whole superstructure must fall. 

(2) That all capital whether floating or stationary 
is coagulated or crystallized labor, the result of spoli- 
ation, due to the existing forms of political adminis- 
tration, by which the system is sanctioned and legal- 
ized. Under this doctrine ma} 7 be placed the assump- 
tion upon which the argument of Henry George's 
Progress and Poverty rests, viz., that the rich are 
growing richer, the poor, poorer. 



69 University Magazine 

(3) That the true function of government is the so- 
lution of the economic problem, to secure to labor the 
products of its industry. From this standpoint the so- 
cialist attacks the prevailing - system of competition and 
proclaims the law of supply and demand oppressive 
and unjust, assuming- the preeminence of equality over 
individual liberty. 

(4) That land and the instruments of production with- 
out which land is useless should become common prop- 
erty. This doctrine is now generally known as the 
" Nationalization of land " theory and enrolls among- 
its advocates such such men as Herbert Spencer and 
Henry Georg-e. 

(5) As the log-ical outcome of these postulates, these 
chang-es constitute a definite and political issue, taking- 
precedence of all other and that in the contest for sov- 
ereignty all classes are foes, the Church included, and 
therefore labor should seize the State. On this as- 
sumption, which Behrens calls the divine rig-ht of labor 
to rules it has rig-htly been said that there can be no 
compromise wich the partisans of the new order. 

It will be noticed that some of the tenets of the 
present Populist party may be classed under one or 
more of the above doctrines. 

Relying- upon well known authorities I have endeav- 
ored to set forth simply and clearly what is meant by 
socialism and what are its fundamental doctrines, be- 
cause a clear conception of both is necessary to an ap- 
prehension of its mistakes or false assumptions. 

I take it that the ethical phase of these doctrines is 
the most important. Is property theft? Is capital 



AssumftionsV_of Socialism 70 

spoliation? Is man to be improved by bettering - the 
man himself first, or by improving - his environments 
only? "Shall we", to quote Behrens, "take anxious 
thoug-ht for what we shall eat, and how we shall be 
housed and clothed, and leave the righteousness of God 
to those who are content to cast shadows?" 

The first criticism of these tenets from the point of 
view of this article is obvious to all. They are ftrima 
facie materialistic. The Christian and the socialist 
are both seeking - the elevation of man, the one that he 
ma} 7 approach nearer a great Ideal, the other that he 
may become more perfectly adapted to environment; 
each that he may secure a greater modicum of happi- 
ness, but by diametrically opposite methods. The so- 
cialist says improve man's environments and he will 
rise in the same proportion ; the Christian with his 
Master, cleanse the heart and teach man to recog- 
nize and love his brother as himself and the misery of 
inequality and the wretchedness of poverty will vanish. 
The socialist assumes that man is the product of cir- 
cumstances only ; the Christian claims that he is a free 
ag-ent, and that his own will and a beneficent Provi- 
dence aids him in moulding his destiny. The socialist 
forg-ets that man has a moral nature, to the subversion 
or non-education of which is due more than a little of 
the social wrong - . If we are naug"ht but an evolution 
of matter, then the modification of our material rela- 
tions is the strong-est formulative force that can be 
broug-ht to bear upon us, and the acquisition of worldly 
comfort no doubt the greatest desideratum. But mor- 
al suasion is more potent than arbitrary force, and 
2 



71 University Magazine 

laws and governments and social relations are but the 
projection of the moral life and character of a people 
upon the plane of history. The lesson from the past 
is that the moral development of the race follows the 
sure lead of Christianity. Shall Christians fling- aside 
their old colors and march onto higher forms of civili- 
zation under the banners of materialist and evolutionist 
leaders? 

Marx and Lassalle were both disciples of the Hag^e- 
lian school of Philosophy. 

Again it is easily shown that the attitude of social- 
ism is unhistoric. Its tenets are based on the evolu- 
tionary hypothesis, but yet its leaders seem not to have 
enough faith in their own views to trust to the efficacy 
of its principles to bring about per se development 
and reform ; but they would resort to revolutionary 
measures. Socialism would appropriate to itself 
all that civilization and progress have brought forth 
with so much patient toil in the hundreds of years gone 
by, on the false assumption, that force and the voice of 
the majority are right and justice. "It is indiscrimin- 
ate", says Ivavele} 7 e, "in its condemnaton of laws and 
institutions that represent the patient and painful 
thought of many generations." In opposition to this 
assumption, that civil institutions rest on force, it is 
needless to prove that truth and justice are the real 
corner stones of all successful government. History 
proves it as it rebuts the assumption directly by hold- 
ing up to inspection the signal failure of the Paris 
Commune of 1871. 

There remain three more assumptions but not space 
enough to consider them. Wm. S. Bernard, '00. 



THE SONG OF THE PINE-TREE. 



Oh what is the Pine-tree seeming - to say, 
Sighing- and sobbing 1 the livelong- day? 

Oh listen ! — the weird and mystic song- ! — 
As if borne on the breeze from a distant throng- 
In a church-yard far away. 

It rises and falls like the waves of the sea — 
This song- of the sorrowing - , sig-hing- tree. — 
It goes to the soul like a solemn knell, 
Ivike the lingering- notes of a tolling- bell. 
Oh tell me, what can it be? 

The Pine-tree's song- is a funeral hymn, 

One long- continuous requiem. 

'Tis sung- o'er the grave of the mouldering- past, 
In the evening- breeze, in the midnight blast, 



In the morning- bleak and grim. 



'98. 



THE PERILS OF IMPERIALISM. 



It was desired by the Editors of the Magazine that 
in the same number with a preceding- article taking- a 
favorable view of territorial expansion, there should ap- 
pear some of the arguments sustaining - the other side 
of the question. It is proposed therefore, without 
going too much into detail, to give briefly the 
main reasons why the policy of imperialism should not 
be entered upon by the United States. We will here 
be concerned almostentirely with the Philippine islands, 
as those lying - just off our coast could not properly be 
considered in a discussion on this subject. 

It is not to be denied that this government has done 
an immense amount of annexation, and has grown great 
thereby; but a look at the conditions under which 
these annexations took place fails to furnish any com- 
fort or encouragement for the advocates of the polic} T 
under consideration. In fact, it points to some of the 
strongest arguments against them. Our acquired ter- 
ritory has been contingent, not only not requiring" any 
additional army and navy force to defend it, but sure to 
be of incalculable benefit during- peace or war. It was 
already thoroughly Americanized or sure to become so. 
Its annexation, so far from increasing the possibility of 
entanglements with European nations, reduced this 
possibility to a minimum. This territory had the al- 
most certain prospect of becoming equal in quality of 



The Perils of Imperialism 74 

population and in every other respect to the then ex- 
isting- states, and consequent^ of receiving - in due time 
the gift of statehood. It is highly significant that 
none of these important qualities are possessed by the 
territory which expansionists are now so eager for us 
to own. 

At length by larg*e acquisitions of this valuable ter- 
ritory our country was made to extend from ocean to 
ocean ; from the great lakes to the gulf — its natural 
boundaries. With the exception of thinly settled Alas- 
ka which may almost be regarded as just so much 
real estate, it was not sought for many years to enlarge 
these bounds. We clung tenaciously to the belief 
that America was to be the sphere of our activities — 
that it would be prejudical to our highest interests to 
seek power in other lands, or to have any European 
nation make conquests on the Western Continent. 
With such a policy, the United States has remained 
comparative^ free from entanglements with the old 
countries, unencumbered b} 7 the necessity of maintaining 
immense military machinery, and with her energies de- 
voted to internal improvement, has made the most re- 
markable progress the world has ever seen. 

But the temptation to desert this policy and reach 
out after distant possessions is upon us. In an evil 
hour Hawaii, by dramatic expressions of her sympathy 
in the recent war, moved the heart of Uncle Sam, and 
has been received into his great family. Those op- 
posed to the colonial, or imperial policy necessarily re- 
gard this as a step in the wrong direction. The close 
of the war leaves other islands still more distant with- 



75 University Magazine 

in our grasp. The" possibility that they, like Hawaii, 
may be made dependencies of the United States 
brings the American people face to face with one of 
the gravest issues they have ever been called upon to 
decide. The arguments pro and con should receive 
unprejudiced consideration. 

It is claimed primarily by the advocates of annex- 
ation that we need the Philippines to enlarge our trade 
relations. This is by far the most important argument 
brought out in favor of the proposition. We now have 
all Hawaii's trade, but by reciprocity treaties we had 
it before. We may command the entire trade of 
the Philippines, but does any reasonable man doubt 
that should the islands be set up in self-government 
by our assistance, and suitable reciprocity treaties ar- 
ranged, that their trade could be secured without the 
difficulties and responsibilities of ownership? This 
seems reasonably sure. While owning the islands 
would make their trade more certain, would the 
difference be equal to the cost? Besides, the ir- 
resistable tendency of the world is toward open ports, 
and as this is gradually brought about we can rely up- 
on American Manufacturers to take care of themselves 
by the natural law r s of commerce. E}very year, more 
and more of the products of our industries are consum- 
ed in foreign lands. Our bicycles, our typewriters, 
engines and machinery of all descriptions, our steel rails 
and many other articles to numerous to mention are for 
purely economic reasons, forcing themselves upon all 
the nations of the world. With our boundless national 
resources, with the finest machinery and the most 



The Perils of Imperialism 76 

skilful labor on earth, it does not seem rash to con- 
clude that our Manufacturers, with what assistance 
they already receive from the government, are fully 
able to solve their own problems. Should it be deem- 
ed expedient to sacrifice our tariff to that extent, we 
may at any time by the reciprocity plan secure the 
markets of almost any of the new countries of South 
America or elsewhere. Annexation should be used 
only as a last resort. 

Over against the small benefits likely to come to the 
manufacturers as the result of annexation are some 
very uninviting- problems which must be met by the 
United States in that event. Such an act would bring 
upon our hands about 8,000,000 people of a very infe- 
rior type. No matter what the resources of their 
land, the people themselves will constitute a problem, 
which in the face of the fact that we have as yet been 
unable to deal satisfactorily with the race question at 
home, should cause us to hesitate a long - time before 
making" these even more inferior races our permanent 
property. They would necessarily be a weakness to 
us whether they ever receive the ballot or not. 

But here appears another difficulty. Unless these 
people have the prospect of becoming citizens of the 
United States, we shall have entered upon a colonial 
policy like England's. Those islands near our coast 
may become Americanized and be admitted to the 
Union as states, but for those on the other side of the 
globe this can scarcely be hoped. Now our free insti- 
tutions are incompatible with a colonial system in 
which the inhabitants of the dependencies are regard- 



77 University Magazine 

ed as inferior, and incapable of the franchise. In our 
scheme of government there is absolutely no place for 
a permanent territory. Shall the ideals of the Repub- 
lic be spoilt in order to possess these islands? But 
there is more than an ideal at stake. Should we annex 
the Philippines enormous expenses would stare us in the 
face. A colony on the other side of the globe would 
be a new experiment for Uncle Sam and preparations to 
defend and govern it would have to be made.' The 
Navy and Army would have to be increased to corre- 
spond with the .increased danger of friction with foreign 
countries, and to subdue, if necessary, the subjects of 
our own little empire. There would be public build- 
ings to construct and a multitude of new offices to 
create, which with our imperfect Civil Service may 
well cause us to shudder. So far from the oversight 
of the home government, corruption would be sure to 
follow. 

With the Philippines in our posessioii it is more than 
likely that the United States would be led, along with 
England, into sera", bling for Chinese territory against 
the other nations of Europe. This would mean the 
loss of that which has always characterized us among 
the great nations, viz., our complete separation from 
European distraction and entanglements. If this 
mad rush for empire should be entered upon, when it 
becomes necessary continually to burden ourselves for 
the support of an Army and Navy equal to the largest 
in the world, it will be too late to regret the past days 
of our pure republicanism, and wish again for the 
peaceful, un-armed neutrality which once prospered 



The Perils of Imperialism 78 

us. The first steps to such a course should be stu- 
diously avoided. 

But it is claimed, and rightly, that the United States 
since driving- Spanish rule from the Philippines, is respon- 
sible to the world for their government. But does this 
mean that we must always own them? We might, in 
co-operation with the leaders of their people, provide 
some sort of self-government for them and assume a 
temporary directorate over their affairs. This would 
ensure better conditions in the islands than those ex- 
isting- at the time of our interference and acquit us be- 
fore the world. But this is not the only way left open 
for their disposal. In case we do not want the islands 
it would be a thousand times better to sell them to 
England for a handsome sum; yes, or pay her as much 
t© relieve us of them, than take a step we think dan- 
gerous and unprofitable. The whole question hing-es 
upon whether it is to our advantage to possess this ter- 
ritory. If it is not, a way for its disposal is at hand. 

England is the i;leal nation for carrying - on such a 
policy as that to which the attention of the United 
States is now turned. She has governed more success- 
fully and profitably her immense empire than any na- 
tion similarly eng-ag-ed. Her constitution and govern- 
ment are adapted to a colonial system. Her civil 
service is well nigh perfect, and corruption and fraud 
almost impossible. She has many qualifications for 
the pursuit of this policy which the United States does 
not possess and has succeeded in many points where we 
should be more than apt to fail. And yet English states- 
men often deplore the enormous expenses incident to 



79 University Magazine 

their system, and seriously consider whether so vast an 
empire is not threatened with dissolution. England's 
general prosperity does not surpass, if indeed equal 
ours; her social conditions are not preferable to our own; 
her labor is not better paid than ours; nor has she any- 
thing* which her polic} 7 of imperialism has given her 
which need excite our envy. 

Some seem to see in this unexpected opportunity to 
increase our landed possessions the leading - of some 
kind fate which it would be criminal to disobey. One 
writer as if settling- once for all this great question, 
exultingly inquires, whether the United States is "to 
accept its high and manifest destiny, or remain forever 
wrapped in the swaddling clothes of eternal infancy." 
I for one must confess my inability to see this high des- 
tiny in the annexation of a few millions of inferior peo- 
ple inhabiting an archipelago on the other side of the 
globe. Neither can I get any very clear conception of 
the helpless infancy in which our great country is now 
said to exist. Our greatness is above the greatness 
of the nations which prowl aroud the dark corners of 
the earth seeking whom they annex; and our policies, 
though that of land-grabbing is not among them, are 
higher and broader than theirs. There comes to na- 
tions as to individuals, temptations which, if yielded 
to, will prove their undoing, and so the opponents of 
Imperialism instead of seeing in our present relations, 
an invitation by Providence to some high destiny, see 
a temptation, appealing- to the greedy instincts of hu- 
man nature to do that which will always stand in the 
way of our progress. They believe that this high des- 



Only a Little Lock of Hair 80 

tiny for the Nation is, in perfecting - its republican insti- 
tutions; in developing the vast resources of its already 
immense territory; in disposing - of the great internal 
problems now pressing- for solution rather than in cre- 
ating - new ones; in remaining - free from foreign entan- 
glements and the despotism of a large standing - army; 
in promoting - harmony and happinsss, liberty and jus- 
, tice throughout our own land and among - our own peo- 
ple. 

Jno. M. Greenfield, '99. 



ONLY A LITTLE LOCK OF HAIR. 



Only a little lock of hair, 

A little dark-brown curl, 

That once was wont to deck the head 

Of a sweet and lovely girl. 

Now it's placed with other treasures, 
Tied with ribbons white and blue, 
Sometimes carried by its owner 
O'er his heart so fondly true. 

Oft it's taken out in secret 
And is looked upon with joy, 
Oft a kiss is pressed upon it 
By some gallant, noble boy. 

Only a little lock of hair, 
A lock that's gold or brown, 
Is next to many a manly heart 
Or among his treasures found. 

A. T. H. 



AN OLD MAN'S DREAM. 



One cold December night, when the wind howled 
without, and the rain came down in "•lancing* sheets, 
he sat by his fire reading" and calmly smoking his long- 
clay pipe. He was an old white-haired man, with a 
curious deep scar on the left side of his face; his skin 
was deeply tanned from exposure to wind and sun. 
But, despite his ag"e, his eye was undimmed and his fig- 
ure unbent. Once, almost unconsciously, he slowly 
raised his eyes from his book, and the picture upon his 
mantel of a young" g"irl caught his giance. His thoughts 
flew back over the lapse of years, and he was young" 
again. 

* * # * * -si- 

He met her at a ball. He had met scores of others 
just as pretty, perhaps prettier. But, from the mo- 
ment that his eyes met those of Alice Vincent, he loved 
her, and he knew it. That was the beginning". Henry 
and his friend, Charles Carlton became constant callers. 
Soon Alice and Henry were friends, then intimates, 
then lovers. She had known Charles all his life, they 
had been boy and girl together; she liked him, but she 
could not return his love. Finally she became eng"ag"ed 
to Henry. But Charles not knowing- this still hoped. 
Thus thing"s stood, when one day the world was 
startled at the news of the blowing" up of a great bat- 
tleship. Soon rumors of a possible war with a great 



An Old Man's Dream 82 

European nation began to be heard on all sides. Then 
came the call for volunteers. Among- those who re- 
sponded to the call were Henry Stra»han and Charles 
Carlton. Henry went in as a private in the ranks, 
but Charles, the only son of a wealthy and influential 
landholder, became one of the superior officers of the 
54th regiment of infantry. 

Orders came for the 54th regiment to set out imme- 
diately to join the forces of the commanding general. 
This was Thursday. Two days later the little sta- 
tion at X was crowded with soldiers and their friends. In 
the midst of the shouting and yelling throng, stood a 
little group. It was Alice, her father and the two 
friends. She seemed wholly absorbed in the thought 
that Henry was going - away and she nearly broke 
down under it, while her farewell to Charles was cold 
and conventional. Noticing the difference he flushed 

and his lip tightened. 

* ***** 

One day after weeks and months of hard fighting, 
when the struggle was nearly over, it was discovered 
that some sharp shooters of the enemy, hidden over in 
the trees and bushes to the left of the line, were inflict- 
ing a great deal of damage, picking off the unwary. 
No one could tell who would be the next victim. This 
state of things could not be endured. The general 
authorized a call for volunteers to drive this pest 
away. Charles Carlton was appointed to read the 
order and choose a half-dozen of the best shots among 
those who should volunteer. As the call was read 
fifty men sprang forward. Having chosen five, 
Charles looked around for the sixth man, he espied 



83 University Magazine 

Henry. To attempt the ambuscade was almost certain 
death, as he knew. He hesitated, looked at Henry; then 
the thought of Alice at home and of the scene at the 
the depot came to him with maddening- force. He said 
to himself, "Well it's his own fault ; I can't keep him 
from running - into danger, if he will. It's not my 
fault. No one can say so. I don't know that he'll be 
killed. And I ought to choose the best man. It is my 
duty." So Henry was the sixth man. The party nev- 
er returned. 

Alice, at first, would not believe in her misfortune, 
but time passed and Henry did not come back. When 
Charles finally returned, confirming - the report, her 
last gleam of hope died away. He did not tell her that 
only five of the bodies had been recovered. The sixth 
could not -be found. He sympathized with her in her 
sorrow, and often spoke of his friend Henry, showing" 
the utmost consideration, waiting - for the first shock 
to pass. Then he began gently to urge his suit. Her 
father and all her relations urgently favoring - the mar- 
riage, she finally yielded. The day was fixed. 

The wedding - took place on a warm Spring - day in 
early April. All went well, the service was over the 
people were coming - out of the church; the cutsomary 
crowd of curious idlers were gathered around the door. 
In this crowd, unobserved by any one, was a tall ema- 
ciated figure with features sallow and drawn as if from 
long sickness, or confinement, and on the side of his 
face a long, deep scar, as if from a sabre. A slouch 
hat, drawn far down, shaded his eyes, which gleamed 
with a preternatural brilliancy. He watched them 



An Old Man's Dream 84 

get slowly into the carriage, and disappear in the dis- 
tance. Then sighing - heavily, he turned away. 

* ***** 

At that moment the last log - burned in two, sending- 
up a shower of sparks as it fell; the book fell to the 
floor with a loud crash, the pipe dropped and broke it in- 
to a hundred pieces. The old man came to himself 
with a little start and shiver. He had been thinking - 
of his past. It was an old man's dream of byg-one 
days. 

D.— '99. 



THE DIALECTIC LITERARY SOCIETY. 



The first recorded account we find of a literary 
society at the University of North Carolina is under 
the date of June 3rd, 1795, about a. month after the 
colleg-e first opened. It was a meeting* of "The 
Debating Society," which had probably been organ- 
ized at some previous date. We learn that this society 
lived and flourished and that its meeting's were held on 
Thursday night of each week. The literary exercises 
were about equally divided between reading - , speaking 1 , 
and giving* exercises in composition. The membership 
fee was twenty-five cents. 

It was evidently thought that two societies could do 
better work than one, for on July 2nd of the same 
year a division took place, the new org-anization bear- 
ing the name of "Concord Society;" this later becom- 
ing the Philanthropic Society. The original body re- 
mained with its name unchanged until August of the 
same year when it was given the name of "Dialectic." 
The change of name however did not affect the internal 
working's of the society, and the laws and constitution 
of the Dialectic Society to-day are, withisome chang-es 
and additions practically the same as those in use 
in the "Debating- Society/ ' 

The names and duties of the officers now are about 
as they were a hundred years ag-o. 

The societies originally had no halls of their own, but 
on different nights of the week held their meeting's in 



The Dialectic Literary Society 86 

Person Hall, the old Chapel. In 1815 the South Build- 
ing- was completed and two halls were provided for 
the societies on the third floor. The library occupied 
the walls of the rooms. Here the young - men held 
their literary meetings for thirty-three years. To 
meet the growing - needs of the societies, better halls 
were provided for them by building - additions to the 
north ends of the Old E}ast and the Old West. In the 
fall of 1848 the Dialectic Society occupied its new 
quarters on the second floor of the Old West Build- 
ing - . 

The first meeting - , which was held in the new hall 
on September 9th, was presided over by Kemp P. 
Battle. This seems to have been quite a memorable 
occasion. The following - paragraph is taken from the 
minutes of that meeting: "It being - the first time the 
Society had assembled in this Hall, the Rev. Dr. Wil- 
liam Mercer Green opened the exercises with a prayer, 
which was immediately followed by a Dedicatory Ad- 
dress by Samuel F. Phillips, Esq. To say that it was 
eloquent and racy, abounding - in pathos and replete 
with solid instruction, noble exhortation and excellent 
advice, is but paying - a faint tribute to this effort." 
The minutes go on to speak of the "affecting and inter- 
esting" scene produced by James Mebane, who had 
been one of the founders and the first president of the 
Dialectic Society, fifty-three years before, who having 
returned to witness the dedication of the new hall, ad- 
dressed the audience. 

A library room was provided for the society on the 
third floor of the Old West directly over the hall. It 
3 



87 University Magazine 

was open to students twice a week, on Wednesday and 
Saturday. The colors of the Society are blue, and it 
was at this time the custom on commencement occa- 
sions for the members to distinguish themselves from 
others by wearing 1 blue bows and ribbons. The sen- 
iors who spoke on commencement day wore long - black 
silk gowns, which were the property of the society. 

From this time until the breaking out of the Civil 
War the Dialectic Society shared in the prosperity of 
the University. In the spring of 1861 the fine, large 
hall in the New West Building was first occupied. 
The formal dedicatory ceremonies were never held 
owing to the sudden and exciting turn of political af- 
fairs. The large debt incurred in furnishing the hall 
was never entirely paid until the re-opening in 1875. 
The library occupied a large room on the floor above 
the hall. During the war the membership dwindled 
in numbers until at one time there were not enough to 
fill all the offices without using some Freshmen. In 
1868 the doors of the University were closed. 

After the refounding of the Society its growth in 
numbers and usefulness has steadily increased with 
slight exceptions until the present time. In 1886 the 
two societies united in placing their body of books in 
the University library. The collection owned by the 
Dialectic Society at this time numbered about 8,000 
volumes. Much of the discipline of the University was 
at an early date placed in the hands of the two soci- 
eties. So well was the move received and so good were 
the practical results obtained that much of this self- 
governing spirit is exerted by these bodies to-day. 



The Dialectic Literary Society 88 

The objects of the Society in the past have ever been 
to stimulate a love for literary work and knowledge of 
parliamentary law, to develop the power of extempo- 
raneous speaking" to the extent of being* able to form 
thoughts quickly and accurately while on the floor and 
give expression to these in good form. 

At the present time its meeting's are held each Sat- 
urday night of the collegiate year. Besides the usual 
weekly debates each member is required to prepare and 
deliver an oration to the society during his senior year. 
There are three inter-society debates which give the 
opportunity for one Freshman, two Sophomores, two 
Juniors, and one Senior to debate in public. There is 
a public society debate in the spring of the year in 
which any member may compete for a handsome prize. 
The annual University debate with the University of 
Georgia gives the members an opportunity to strive for 
the high honor of crossing swords with opponents 
from another state. On Washington's birthday the 
Society has an orator to represent it. Four members 
are annually chosen as editors of the University 
Magazine, and in other ways as well is the literary 
ability of the society given an opportunity to develop. 
The Hall is a very beautiful one. Last year a new 
carpet costing several hundred dollars was spread up- 
on its floor; thirty oil portraits of illustrious members 
adorn its walls. Among these one may see the faces 
of college presidents, men who became famous in war 
both by land and by sea, prominent men in business 
and philanthropy as well as political men high in the 
Nation's favor. Legislators, governors and senators 



89 University Magazine 

are there and the President's chair is not wiihout its 
representative. 

With a large membership of strong- courageous young 
men the Dialectic Society is ever moving forward with 
its grand work, calling with cheer and good will to its 
sister society, while its members proudly bear aloft the 
ancient banner of their fathers bearing the motto : 
"Tvove of Science and Virtue." 

T. G. Pearson, '99. 






AN UNTURNED LEAF IN THE LOVE AF- 
FAIRS OF CATHERINE, HENRY 
THE FIFTH'S QUEEN. 



The first scene of our story is laid in the court of a 
victorious army, whose commander, our old friend Hal, 
Shakespeare's ideal king - , has just conquered Charles 
of France at the Battle of Agincourt and forced him to 
come to terms of peace. In Shakespeare's play we 
find that he was a man who loved the commoners of his 
country, being - especially fond of Fluellen, the Welsh- 
man. We now see him in conversation with another 
of the same band that David Gam had brought to him 
from newly loyal Wales. The king" is speaking" — •: 

"I have a request to make of thee, SirKnig-ht, a mis- 
sion I wish thee to undertake. Thou wilt do it?" 

"Most gladly, my gracious liege. Thy will is my 
law." 

"As you know", Henry continues, "I am a soldier, 
and a man of plain speech, not one g"iven to pleasing" 
phrases and compliments which win the love of women ; 
but thou art such a man, and since thou art* I am g"o- 
ing" to send thee to Troyes to act as proxy for me in my 
suit for the Princess Catherine. Away at once and re- 
main there 'till I relieve thee. Do your errand well 
and I will reward thee. Here, take this ring", it will 
be thy passport." 

"Most gracious Sovereign, it shall be as thou com- 
mandest"; and with this reply, young Owen Tudor, 



91 University Magazine 

one of the squires of Henry's person, left his king's 
presence and prepared for his journey. 

A few days later he reached the French Court, then 
at Troyes in Champaigne. The young - Welshman was 
heartily welcomed by the Duke of Burgundy and pre- 
sented to the fair being he had come to woo. Owen 
saw before him a most beautiful young woman of twen- 
ty, or thereabouts, with eyes as black as midnight and 
hair of the same dark hue. For a moment he was daz- 
ed. He had heard of her beauty, for it was the talk of 
the times, but he had never dreamed that it was so 
dazzling. He was not embarrassed, however ; for, 
though his heart beat fast, he spoke his message with 
ease and eloquence. But, for some reason or other, he 
made his first visit shorter than he had intended. 

For the next few weeks, he was with her much of 
the time, praising Henry — his valor and nobility of 
character, and he thought he was successfully paving 
the way for his king. But he found it a harder task 
than he had thought to woo for another one he would 
fain have wooed for himself. His constant contact 
with her had deepened the impression she had first 
made on him, and almost before he knew it he found 
himself in love. 

At first his feeling was one of admiration for her 
beauty, but, little by little, this feeling had grown and 
deepened and had become now, as it were, a part of 
him. He loved her, and could not help it. But he had 
been sent in the interest of his sovereign. He was 
there not to speak for himself, but for his king — his 
kinsr to whom he was so devoted and for whom he had 



Henry the Fifth's Queen 92 

risked his life time and time again on the battle field. 
So he kept his peace and tried to crush out his growing 
passion. He would have gone back to camp, if possi- 
ble, but Hal had commanded him to wait for him, and 
that command must be obeyed. He could count on 
Henry's leniency if he could return with some good 
reason. But he had only one excuse to offer, and that 
he could not tell his king or Catherine. Any way there 
were only a few more days before he must yield his 
place to the one he represented ; so, with breaking 
heart he remained to do his duty. 

But what of Catherine? What impression had the 
fair-haired young Welshman, with his deep, magnetic, 
blue-grey eyes made on her? A most pleasing one in- 
deed. "Ah !" she said to herself, "He is fair spoken 
indeed, I like him. I hope the one for whom he speaks 
is just such a man. If he is I can willingly give my 
hand to him.'' 

The more she saw of Tudor, the more his wit, his 
dashing spirit, his romantic way of making love, 
though for another, fascinated her ; and his nobility of 
heart, which showed itself in his bearing made a deep 
impression on her. His like she had not seen among 
the gentlemen of France. They were shallow court- 
iers, while he was not only the man who could turn a 
compliment well, but also the man to win his way into 
a woman's heart. And while she knew that he was 
speaking for another and could not speak for himself, 
and that she was the daughter of the king of France 
and was already betrothed to the king of England, and 
he only a gentleman of fortune, whose boa.sted royal 



93 University Magazine 

ancestry was but a name, and who owed his pres- 
ent position to kingly favor, she soon learned that her 
liking for him had changed to love. 

She was a woman — and French, of the type of char- 
acter that levels class distinctions and regal convention- 
alities in affairs of the heart. So she did not, like Tu- 
dor, try to crush her love, but let the new emotion run 
its course, and thought not of consequencies. 

But now it is evident to her discerning eye - that 
Owen, with all his freedom and ease of address, has 
become somewhat constrained. 

One day, coming unexpectedly upon him sitting in 
the garden of the palace, as he thought by himself, she 
saw at once that he was in trouble. His face was hard 
and determined, and now and then, though he would 
try hard to control it, a sigh would burst from his bos- 
om and his breath came hard and slow. In her soul 
she pitied him and new-born love made her heart ache. 
She must go to comfort him ! — No, that would never 
do ; and disguising her emotion in pleasant speech she 
passed rapidly on, while the once mirthful youth hard- 
ly seemed to notice her. 

"Shall I tell her?" he said to himself. "Shall I tell 
her of my love? No, I can not. Honor binds me to be 
silent." 

He answered her greeting with only the coldest for- 
mality. His voice was hard and unnatural. Uncon- 
sciously he groaned — a groan scarcely audible. Yet 
Catherine only a few steps away heard it, and stopped. 
Some unknown force held her, and she turned slowly, 
almost staggering, back towards him. But he steeled 



Henry the Fifth's J$jieen 94 

his face against her, and, though she confronted him 
persuasively, he dared not look up. She spoke first: — 

"Sir Owen," she said tenderly, "you are in trouble, 
can I help you?" 

But he answered nothing, though within his heart 
cried : "speak ! speak ! You must speak, or you will 
die!" 

Catherine seated herself beside him and turned the 
gaze of those dark, pleading eyes on his. 

"Tell me," she said again. "We are friends, are we 
not? I will help you." 

"I can not tell," he answered hoarsely. 

More and more his face revealed his struggle, but 
duty and self-reproach held him still until tears rose 
in her ey:s and ran slowly down her cheeks. Owen 
looked up and saw them. He knew what they meant. 
One by one the words forced themselves from his lips ; 
they were jerked out, not spoken. 

"God help me! I love } T ou, " he groaned. And then 
the strong man buried his face in his hands. If he had 
suffered before it was mortal anguish now. He had 
done what he had sworn not to do. His honor was 
gone. Catherine reached out her hand and took one of 
his. Her tears were falling fast, and she felt if he 
should leave her, as he seemed about to do, she would 
die. 

"If you love me," she cried, "dont leave me ! Hove 
you too." 

Ag-ain Owen forgot himself, and, taking her in his 
arms, he pressed his lips to hers. Then a great glad- 
ness came into his breast, but the next moment reason 



95 University Magazine 

returned and he knew it could be but the maddest 
dream. 

"Listen Catherine," he said, "you are the betrothed 
of another, and lam his friend. You must marry him 
or England and France will again be involved in war. 
1 must leave you. I can not stay where you are now, 
for I have proved false to him ; you must do your duty, 
and I, mine. I love you, but I must go." 

"Owen." It was plain Owen now. "Owen," she 
answered, "you are right. I wish I were a plain wo- 
man, who could love where she chose, and not a prin- 
cess, whose husband must be chosen for her. But 
since I am of royal blood I must do what is required of 
me. I will marry Harry of England, since I must, 
but my heart and love are yours forever," 

And so these two lovers, whom a higher will than 
theirs had parted from each other, went forward, sac- 
rificing themselves on the altar of patriotism. 

***** * 

Catherine proved a faithful wife to Henry, and, al- 
though she could not give her love, she could not but 
give him her greatest regard and respect. He was an 
ideal man- a king of men, and as such she recognized 
him. But her love was Tudor's, and her heart un- 
changed. The sacrifice was great, but though some- 
times her days were sad as she thought of what hap- 
piness might have been hers, had her station in life 
been different, yet that sweet peace which comes to all 
who do their duty, regardless of consequences, was 
hers. And with Owen it was the same. He, who had 
so loyally renounced his love in favor of his sovereign, 



Henry the Fifth's Jgueen 96 

found the sacrifice and the burden of his heart made 
easy by the same thought. He still continued one of 
the squires of Henry's person, and though he and Cath- 
erine often met, no word concerning" the past was spok- 
en. They both understood and bore their lot with for- 
titude. 

Thus they lived for three years, and then Henry 
died and was buried in the tomb of his fathers, Cath- 
erine's son, young" Henry VI, ascending the throne. 

There was nothing now to keep Owen and herself 
from speaking of their mutual love, and queen though 
she was, and dowager of both England and France, 
and though Owen was only one of her retinue, she was 
loyal to the dictates of her heart. So after a fitting 
time had passed since Henry's death, she wrote to 
Tudor the following letter: — 

"Think not, my Owen, that this triumph of love over 
magesty doth impeach a princess' worth, or that it 
proceeds from frailty, but rather judge it fate that has 
broken down the barriers that were between us. He 
was thy king who sued for my love, and she your queen 
who sues for thine. While Henry lived, it were wrong 
for me thus to write to you, but now that he is dead, 
it cannot be. Though wife, daughter, mother, sister 
to a king, more to me art thou alone than all of these. 
Fear not, my Tudor, that my love should wrong the 
Henry that is dead, for I claim not all from him, but 
am as well the daughter of France, nor can I think 
that Charles and Isabel would be disparaged by our 
match. Thou too art of royal blood; and Wales as 
well as haughty England can boast of her Camilots, 



97 University Magazine 

her Arthurs, and her Knig-hts. Let not the beams of 
greatness amaze thy hopes, for mag-esty can be as kind 
in love as those of low degree and the heart of a queen 
as true as theirs. Love breaks all barriers down. 
Thou loved'st me once, but loyally didst, resign me to 
thy king - . Now that I am free, I am wholly thine. I 
know that thou lov'st me yet; so let others, if they will, 
prate of rig"ht and wrong-, of titles and descents, 
but thou, sweet Tudor, do not think of these. I love 
thee, is not that enoug"h?" 

His answer showed that he still loved her and that 
he thoug-ht he now had the rigfht to love. 

"When first I beheld your letter, my heart leapt for 
joy," he wrote. "My lips which should have spoken 
were dumb and kissed it, and all my senses were amaz- 
ed. My long-ing" eyes saw every letter pleasing-, 

found each word, that your dear hand had written, 
sweet. At last, my queen, our hearts are free and 
we can love. 'Twas not report of Henry's conquests 
nor his terror-striking - name that brought me first from 
my mountain Wales to Kng-land, but the hand of fate. 
The eternal destinies did decree that you to me in 
marriage should be joined. Our great Merlin did fore- 
tell that Tudor's name should be linked with that of 
kingfsand queens. Then cast no futher doubts nor fears 
whatever, for fate haih foretold that it should be. 
Your Tudor derives not his birth from Heaven nor 
claims descent from Neptune nor the glorious Sun; 
and yet in Wales they say that from great Cadwalla- 
der my family came, and that the princes of Wales are 
my kin. This may perhaps make less the greatness 



Henry the Fifth's J^zieen 98 

of the step that you have taken and give me favor in 
my suit. Though Henry's fame in me you shall not 
find, yet love I have as deep as his; his only advantage 
lay in the title of a king. Pardon me, sweet queen, 
if I offend you; but you know how long I have waited 
for this time, and though there seemed no hope, yet 
all along I have truly loved thee, bnt in silence. All 
that I can offer is my love. A king might promise 
more, yet more than I, he could not love. My heart 
and life are thine, do with them as thou wilt. I now 
must cease to write, but I will never cease to love 
thee." 

Somehow or other the report of this correspondence 
leaked out, and trouble was the result. The royal 
family were indignant that Catherine should thus 
disregard the barriers of class, and stoop to place her 
affections on the young Welshman, whose royal birth 
was not recognised, for the} 7 only looked on his present 
state as a reyal dependent. 

Catherine was even confined for a time, it is said by 
some, in order to break the contemplated match and 
for nearly five years they were kept apart. Finally 
the Duke of Gloucester induced Parliament to pass an act 
prohibiting the"Queen Dowager" from marrying with- 
out the consent of the king and his council. But this 
was a useless measure, for already these two lives so 
long separated and these two hearts so true to each 
other through all the years of trial had been united, a 
few months before, by a secret marriage, and there 
was nothing for those in authority to do but to recog- 
nize it. 



99 University Magazine 

Our story has interest for us not only from the ro- 
mantic side, but also from the historical, as this union 
was the g-erm of the great Tudor dynasty of England, 
so ably represented by Henry VIII, Catherine's great- 
grand son, and Elizabeth, her great-great-grand- 
daug-hter. 

B, B. Lane, Jr., '99. 

Note. All the incidents of this story are not histor- 
ical, but where they are not, I have, as is the privilege 
of those who attempt to record the "Romances of His- 
tory," fallen back on Dame Rumor. My only warrant 
for Tudor's courtship of Catherine as Henry's proxy 
is found in Lord 0$£xy£\ historic play, ' The History 
of Henry V.' This play is not extant, but a 
short reference to it may be found in Ward's, 'Shak- 
spere and his Predecessors.' The letters herein g-iven 
are for the most part taken from ' Drayton's Heroic 
Epistles,' found in 'English Poets' Vol. IV. B. B. L. 



THE PHILANTHROPIC LITERARY SOCIETY. 



Originally there was but one literary society at the 
University and it was known as "The Debating* Soci- 
ety." It was soon considered expedient, however, to 
have two societies, so on July 5th, 1795, a division was 
made, and on August 1st, the "Concord Society" was 
organized. A year later on August 29th, 1796, its 
name was changed to the "Philanthropic Society." 

The Society had no hall of its own so its meetings 
were held weekly in the old Chapel (Person Hall), and 
its library, consisting of a few half worn volumes pre- 
sented by sympathizing friends, was kept in an old 
cupboard and moved from room to room as the libra- 
rian was changed. In 1815 the South building was 
completed and a hall for the Society was provided on 
its third floor, the library occupying the walls. 

For thirty-three years the Society met in that hall. 
During that time' the University grew rapidly both in 
wealth and in the number of its students, and with it 
grew the Society. New and larger quarters became 
necessary and consequently a new section was added 
to the Old East building solely for the accomodation 
of the Phi Society. The first meeting in the new hall 
was held August 15th, 1848. The hall and the library 
occupied different apartments, the former being on the 
second floor and the latter on the third. 

The period from 1848 to 1860 marks one of the most 
prosperous eras in the history of the University. The 



101 University Magazine - 

number of students was greatly increased, and the 
membership of both Societies increased in proportion. 
E)ven larger halls than those then occupied became an 
imperative necessity, and .about the beginning - of the 
war the Phi Society moved into the beautiful hall it now 
occupies in the New IDast building - . 

At the very high tide of our prosperity, the lower- 
ing" war clouds cast a gloomy and ever darkening 
shadow over the University and the Society. Young 
men as well as old ones shouldered their mus- 
kets, and ere long scarcely a handful remained to hold 
the Society together. They struggled on faithfully 
for a year or two, but in 1868 they gave up the ghost, 
and the Phi Society ceased to exist. 

The Society was not re-organised until the re-opening 
of the University in 1875. E}ven then the University 
and both Societies were repaired and re-opened by pri- 
vate subscriptions from friends who rallied around them 
and refused to let them die. Since that time the Phi 
Society has continued to grow, and to broaden its 
sphere of usefulness and influence, with perhaps the 
single exception of the year 1896. 

For various reasons, both attendance and duty were 
made optional during that year. At first this new ar- 
rangement worked like a charm, as only those who did 
little in the Society dropped out. But at length a spirit 
of indifference pervaded the whole Society. The very 
best and most enthusiastic members began to neglect 
their Society work, excusing themselves on the ground 
that they were busy and that their absence would not 
be noticed. Soon nobody scarcely attended the meet- 



The Philanthropic Literary Society 102 

ings, and fewer still came ok duty. The fines for non- 
attendance and non-performance of duty having- been 
abolished, there was little source of revenue and the 
Society was on the brink of ruin. 

Fortunately, a reaction took place toward the end 
of the year and the old regime was practically re- 
stored. Immediately new life and vigor permeated the 
Society, and work began again in earnest. To-day it 
is stronger than ever before. It has an able corps of 
debaters in every class, from the seniors t© the fresh- 
men, and all work with such zeal that nothing but 
success can follow. Great interest is taken in all its 
literary work, and especially in the inter-society and 
inter-collegiate debates. 

The Society color is white, and its motto is, "Virtue, 
Liberty, and Science." 

"The objects of the Society were and have contin- 
ued to be two- fold. First, the improvement of its 
members in the science and art of debating, in English 
composition and the attainment of a good style, in the 
knowledge of parliamentary rules and modes of conduc- 
ting public business. Secondly, the cultivation of mor- 
al and social virtues, and the formation of lasting 
friendships founded on co-operation in honorable works. 
In order to further these great ends, the Society has 
used every effort for the accumulation of good books and 
the collection of portraits of its members, who after 
leaving its halls have attained high positions." 

In all these aims the Society has been wonderfully 
successful. In 1886 it turned over to the University 
8,000 choice volumes to be combined with the Univer- 
4 



103 University Magazine 

sity library, and in its halls it has over twenty oil por- 
traits of distinguished members. Throughout the 
Southern States the influence of its members has been 
felt in government affairs, and in both public and pri- 
vate enterprises. And more than that, it has contrib- 
uted many leading- men to the Union. As Vice-presi- 
dent, Cabinet Officers, Foreign Ministers, Senators 
and members of the House of Representatives, they 
have been conspicuous for their wise and faithful ser- 
vice. 

WiivijAM Edward Cox, '99. 



North Carolina University Magazine. 

PUBLISHED SIX TIMES DURING THE COLLEGE YEAR BY 
THE DIALECTIC AND PHILANTHROPIC LITERARY SOCIETIES. 

Old series, vol xxix. no. 2 -December, \m. New series, vol m. 

PRICE $1.50 PFR YEAR - - - - 25 PENIS PER COPY. 

TPtie? Boetirci of Editors. 

WILLIAM SIDNEY WILSON, '99, Editor-in-Chief, Di. 
Wiwam Stanley Bernard, '00, Phi. 
Claude Baker Denson, Jr., '99, Phi. 
John Donnew,y, '99, Di. 
Henry Mauger London, '99, Di. 
Howard Braxton Holmes, '99, Phi. 
Francis Moore Osborne, '99, Di. 

WILLIAM EDWARD COX, '99, Business Manager, Phi. 

All literary communications should be addressed to the Editor- 
in-Chief. All business matters to the Business Manager. 
Entered at the Chapel Hill Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter. 

The Editor's Desk. 

Exchange Heretofore our Magazine has been lack- 
Department, ing- in this most important department. 
It was tlioug-ht best by the editors of last year, by whom 
the publication was revived, not to establish it, and 
following - their example our October issue did not have 
it. Seeing this fault, as we think it, in past issues, 



105 University Magazine 

we shall in the future have an Exchange Department. 
No first class College Magazine can afford to be with- 
out it. Not only does it afford an opportunity to make 
mention of the many magazines we recieve as ex- 
changes, which are worthy of such mention, and other- 
wise could not get it, but it also gives us a more wide- 
spread interest in the doings of the college world in a 
literary sense. 

These reviews stimulate and encourage not only the 
editors, but all who have the interest of their magazine 
at heart. To review a Magazine does not necessarily 
mean to "red ink" it, as we may say, but to give 
praise where praise is due and to offer suggestions for 
the improvement of weak points. The review is the 
barometer by which we must determine the estimate 
placed upon our work by the outside world. What 
editor does not, when he receives an exchange, turn at 
once to the exchanges to see what it has to say of his 
own Magazine? There is that much of the selfish in 
all of us, that we like to see what is in our hands pros- 
per and be respected by the people at large; and noth- 
ing so encourages the editor as a favorable review of 
his Magazine, nor does anything drive him to his work 
with a stronger determination to make improvement 
than a just criticism of some feature which is not up 
to the standard. 

In consideration then of these facts, we shall here- 
after haye as full a review of our exxhanges as is pos- 
sible, and if what our editor in that department may 
have to say, shall in any way encourage a brother or 
sister editor, by giving just praise, or shall be bene- 



The Editor's Desk 106 

ficial by pointing - out some defect, and his comments 
will always have these ends in view, we shall feel that 
we have accomplished our purpose. 



Foot Ball. The '98 foot-ball season is over. The 
Southern Championship is ours. To say 
that we are proud of our team is but a feeble expression 
of the feeling - every student of the University has for 
the men, who in so many hard fought battles have 
won victory after victory and at last achieved the long- 
looked for, long - hoped for victory over our friendly 
opponents, the Virginians. "They bearded the bear 
in his den'''' on Thanksgiving, and covered themselves 
with glory. 

The other games have been held as mere practice 
games, preparing to meet the team which has for sev- 
eral years defeated us; and at last hard, earnest work 
has brought to us the cherished Palm. Not, however, 
without a severe struggle, for Virginia, roo, had the 
best team in her history, and they fought like men to 
the last; but now the white and blue wave triumph- 
antly over our team, whose record will go down in 
history as one untarnished by defeat, unprecedented in 
the annals of our Athletics. 

Too much praise cannot be given Coach Reynolds, 
who has been from the very beginning of the season so 
untiring in his efforts to make a good team of the ma- 



107 University Magazine 

terial he had. E}ach individual player deserves much 
credit for the hard and faithful work he has done, and 
last, but not least, the scrubs by good, honest work 
have aided very materially in making- our score what 
it is. They are the power behind the team and too 
much cannot be said in their behalf. 

Below we give the games of the season with results:- 
Carolina vs Guilford 18 — 

Carolina vs A & M 34—0 

Carolina vs Oak Ridge 11 — 

Carolina vs Greensboro 11 — 
Carolina vs V. P. I. 28—6 

Carolina vs Davidson 11 — 

Carolina vs Georgia 53 — 

Carolina vs Auburn 29 — 

Carolina vs Virginia 6 — 2 

Thus we see we have scored 201 points against our 
opponents' 8. 

This is a record of which we may justly be proud, 
and in future years we shall remember with pleasure 
the career of the foot-ball team of '98. 



Department There could be no better demonstration 
* of the educational spirit of the Universi- 

Pedagogy. ^y than the interest which has for a long 
time been manifested here in the training of teachers. 
University men early realized how important it is that 



The Editor's Desk 108 

teachers have especial preparation for their work, and 
from the efforts of these men to make it possible for 
such preparation to be obtained, have resulted the va- 
rious movements for pedagogic improvement which the 
people of North Carolina have enjoyed. 

In 1877, Summer Normal Schools began to be held 
at the Universit} 7 . These continued for eight years, 
and were superseded by four normal schools, establish- 
ed in different parts of the State. Teachers' Insti- 
tutes, conducted by University men, finally took the 
place of these four schools. At these institutes the 
question of establishing permanent schools for teach- 
ers was agitated. The result was the Normal and In- 
dustrial College, at Greensboro, and the Chair of Ped- 
agogy in the University. 

This is a bit of history of which University people 
can well afford to be proud. The Normal and Indus- 
trial College is accomplishing much;and we doubt wheth- 
er the work in any department of the University will re- 
sult in more lasting good to the people all over our 
State than that done in the Department of Pedagogy. 
Grave problems are before our people for solution. 
The solution of many of these is to be found only in 
education. Our people need a more general, a more 
liberal education. For this they must depend mainly 
on the public schools, and these schools must have 
teachers. Many of our students are going out each 
year to take places as teachers in these schools. To 
go without having had training for this work would be 
to invite failure. 

This necessary training is supplied in our Depart- 



109 University Magazine 

ment of Pedagogy. At the head of this department is 
a professor who has had wide experience and unlimit- 
ed success as a teacher. The courses offered have 
both a pedagogic and a culture value, and are intended 
to fit those who take them to teach in any of the grades 
of instruction, from the primary to the high school. 
Practical illustrations of the best methods of teaching- 
are given; and, in addition to this, a thorough study is 
made of the educational leaders of this and other coun- 
tries, both those of our own day and those of times 
past. Thus the student is shown how to teach, and is 
also inspired with the loftiness and the importance of 
the teaching profession. 

Specimens of the work done by children in the best 
graded schools of the country will be obtained from 
time to time and placed where the student in Pedagogy 
may examine them. At no distant day, too, an effort 
will be made to establish a practice school here .When 
this school is established, students will have an oppor- 
tunity to test their skill in teaching before they leave 
the University. 

It ought to be encouraging to friends of education to 
know that large numbers of the University students 
are availing themselves of the instruction given in this 
department. This means better methods of teaching, 
better schools, and consequently greater intellectual 
and moral growth in North Carolina. 



Book Notices. 

C. B. Denson Editor. 

Bismarck — Some secret pages of his history. — Be- 
ing- a diary kept by Dr. Moritz Busch, during- twenty- 
five years' official and private intercourse with the 
Great Chancellor. — With Portraits. 2 vols. 8vo. 
New York. The MacMillan Company, 1898. $10. 

During- the long period in which Bismarck controlled 
the politics and diplomacy of Prussia and German} 7 , 
he made constant use of certain newspapers, for the 
purpose of shaping public opinion and defending the 
policy ot the government. 

To this end he had about him a few competent offici- 
als whose duty it was to write newspaper articles 
under his own instructions. Dr. Moritz Busch 

was for a time one of these confidential secreta- 
ries; and after his official connection with the For- 
eign Office had ceased, he continued to enjov the confi- 
dence of the Chancellor. This relation was maintain- 
ed about twenty-three years. During all this time, 
Dr. Busch kept a diary, and wrote out very fully a 
vast amount of information about Bismarck, dealing 
with politics and with personal affairs, giving news- 
paper articles and conversations with a zeal not un- 
worthy of Boswell himself. 

Bismarck is Dr. Busch's chosen hero. Indeed, he 
once called him his Messiah, and stood ready not only 



Ill University Magazine 

to devote to him his life, but if necessary, to lay it 
down in his master's cause. The Chancellor encour- 
aged the keeping - of the diary and authorized its publi- 
cation, when he should no longer be in this world. 
Dr. Busch evidently had the manuscript ready for the 
press and sent it to the printer as soon as Bismarck's 
death was announced. The Preface is dated on the 
day of his death. 

The two volumes have not the same degree of inter- 
est for the American reader. Both contain very many 
allusions to Bismarck's far-reaching" political work, 
but for the general reader these allusions are usually 
too fragmentary to be intelligible. On the other hand, 
vol. I deals almost exclusively with Bismarck's activi- 
ty during the Franco-German War, and here the sub- 
ject grows greatly in interest. We follow the Prus- 
sian Minister-President, as he, accompanied by a de- 
tachment of the Foreign Office, followed the victorious 
army. At Sedan we have a thrilling account of the 
great battle by an eye witness, and a record of Bis- 
marck's diplomatic work, by which Napoleon III and 
his large army ceased to be factors in the war. Then 
follow the wearisome negotiations at Versailles, until 
Bismarck achieved his splendid success in bring- 
ing the South German States into the great German 
union, and making his Prussian king Emperor of Ger- 
many. 

We should be glad to have some "secret pages" on 
Bismarck's share in the candidacy of the Prince 
of Hohenzollern for the Spanish throne, but Busch does 
not help us much. He once quotes somebody as saying 



Book Notices 112 

that this candidacy was a trap set for France. There 
seems to be no doubt that the trap was thus set by Bis- 
marck and we should expect a fuller statement of it by 
an annalist who claims as his only purpose the re- 
cord of the plain unvarnished truth. 

Vol. II. is concerned chiefly with politics. In the 
period here treated, Bismarck was strengthening" and 
developing- the Empire and working- to maintain the 
peace of Kurope. 

Dr. Busch, though disclaiming the purpose of writ- 
ing a biography gives many views of Bismarck's life and 
character that will furni:h material for the future bio- 
grapher. 

Many of the incidents reported reveal a trait that we 
are accustomed to reg-ard as characteristic ©f the Iron 
Chancellor, — his unbending- will. William I. usually 
treated his chancellor with the utmost consideration, as 
was very natural but when he occasionally tried to 
have his own way Bismarck promptly broug-ht him to 
terms by threatening- to resig-n. And yet he revered 
the old Emperor as much as he could revere anybody. 
It may thus be easily understood that he would not 
brook opposition from lesser lights. 

It is interesting to note in Dr. Busch's volumes, how 
Bismarck, by nature a turbulent democrat, remained al- 
ways a devoted and conscientious royalist. He him- 
self explains it as a result of his belief in God as the 
founder of earthly monarchies. 

Despite his loyalit} 7 , he did not abstain from occasional 
criticism of his sovereign, William I; and of other roy- 
al and imperial persons who vexed or opposed him, he 



113 University Magazine 

spoke in terms that must to pious Germany seem akin 
to blasphemy. Frederick, both as Crown Prince and 
Emperor, and his wife, made the Chancellor's 
life a burden. He does not conceal his opinion of 
them. Indeed, Bismarck seems to have thought well 
only of those who obeyed him. That may be the rea- 
son why he was able to bestow upon the old Emperor 
such a wealth of sincere and hearty veneration. It 
may also explain why he felt so kindly toward the au- 
thor of the volumes under consideration. 

The concluding- pages of vol. II deal with the time 
when the aged Chancellor was set aside by the hot- 
headed young Emperor, who had not the motives of 
his father and grandfather for accepting a Mentor. 
But Busch approaches the subject cautiously. His 
course was doubtless suggested by prudence. 

Describing so intimately the greatest figure in Eu- 
ropean politics in the century — possibly the greatest 
in any century, — Dr. Busch 's book cannot fail to en- 
gage the attention of the reading, thinking world. 
Besides its own intrinsic value, it will be a rich mine 
of material when the time comes to write the biogra- 
phy of Prince Bismarck. 



VARIA.— Agnes Rbpplier. Mifflin & Co., Boston. 

This is a series of charming little essays on various 
subjects of interest, literary and historical. 

One is the discussion of the misnomer "New Wo- 



Book Notices 114 

man." She is always the "Eternal Feminine," and 
always has been. For hundreds of years woman has 
claimed intellectual equality with man. In the four- 
teenth century woman's rights were advocated before 
the court of Charles VI; all the arguments that are 
used today were used then, and the same woman prov- 
ed her case by writing- a thorough treatise on the 
science of war, which was an authority in those battle- 
loving days. Addison satirizes women for "meddling" 
in politics; even in his day woman aspired to the stand- 
ing collar and the other paraphernalia of men. One 
hundred and twenty years ago "platform women" 
were known. There is no such thing as the "new wo- 
man." 

In another place we have a description of ^fete in a 
provincial French town; with its quaint customs, and 
its curious mixture of the secular and religious lore, 
and its peculiar distortion of historic facts for the pur- 
poses of the church. 

Again, we have a discussion of the relative merits of 
some of the histories of today, with their simple and 
bare enumeration of facts, their drj? as dust collection 
of historic records, without a thing to help us under- 
stand the life of the age, as compared with the Chron- 
icles of Froissart, which, although inaccurate at times, 
yet, paint for us life; his knights and ladies are living, 
breathing men and women; and they show us the mid- 
dle ages, as no collection of facts would ever do. "He 
gives to the printed page the breath of the living past." 

Through the whole of these essays runs a quiet hu- 
mor, and an extensive knowledge of men and books is 
shown. 



Exchanges. 



Wm. S. Bernard Editor. 

In the past we have spasmodically offered our hum- 
ble criticism of our contemporaries, but not until this 
issue has the University Magazine presented to its 
reading- public a well defined Department of Exchan- 
ges. We are here to stay; and it might be well by 
way of salutatory to define briefly the position and 
aim ot the present editor of this department. Our 
purpose: over the warm hand clasp of mutual endeavor 
to incite to more strenuous effort, loftier ideals, more 
perfect execution. We pra}' pardon for formulating" a 
method by contrast with what seems to us the error of 
our contemporaries. If criticism is to accomplish a 
legitimate purpose and result, it should be criticism 
and not wishywashiness. It seems to us that in 
general the exchange editor has taken unto himself 
too large a task for each issue. 

It is but rarely we find one who does not attempt to 
review the magazine under inspection as a whole, in 
respect to its binding, typography, arrangement, gener- 
al subject matter, with now and then slight reference 
to individual work, as simply good, bad or indifferent. 

The usual type of comment is somewhat thus: — 
"We pick up the So-and-So Magazine as a good open- 
ing issue. It presents itself to us bedecked with a 
new but rather gloomy cover. We do not know that 
this is an addition to its usual bright and sparkling in- 



Exchanges 116 

terior. The two or three quite readable essays barely 
redeem the issue from dullness or atone for its lack of 
fiction. Is this well?" 

"We always hail with delig-htthe So-and-So — " &c. 

Surely tho' this method may give a suggestion now 
and then to a board of editors, the individual who has 
labored to present some thought in appropriate style, 
and anxiously scans the exchange column for something 
helpful, beg'ins to wonder why the Department exists, 
unless to afford the useless ex-man opportunity to make 
graceful bows to those of his own kilt. 

In the second place, we believe that this error is 
mainly the result of another, viz., the attempt tore- 
view too largfe a number of magazines at one sitting*. 
The exchang-e editor seems under obligation to gfo as 
far as possible around the circle of acquaintances, with 
the complimentary act, and like the hostess at a larg-e 
reception succeeds in grasping - many hands but in bor- 
ing - and being - bored. 

If in pursuing - the methed implied in the above re- 
marks the exchang-e editor of this mag'azine shall now 
and then have helped some student, who like himself 
is struggling - for wholesome culture, the culture of rug'- 
g-ed, undecorated truth, he will have fulfilled his sense 
of obligation, and however stringent his criticism, he 
will not in that instance arouse enmity. We know not 
the term "hostile criticism." However "Z« critique 
est aisee," is a wretched fallacy, and we know that at 
times we shall misunderstand and be misunderstood. 
History and Literature have but one example par ex- 
cellence of the just judge. 



117 University Magazine 

Thus in weakness and fear increased by our self- 
assertiveness we begin our work where it is difficult to 
err. 

Of all our exchanges we read none with more genuine pleasure 
than the Mnetnosynean. Its English is pure, simple and unpreten- 
tious. Its subject matter is visually within the scope of a College 
Monthly. In the November issue we notice two articles of a type of 
description that is rarely well done. Who from down South, or as 
we say here, "down East," has not felt the power of the field-negro's 
'vesper songs?" A Sketch makes us homesick with longing to 
hear again their musical voices. There are no false touches in deal- 
ing with the darkies, nothing stilted or grandiloquent in the shor} 
rhapsody that characterizes their song. Again, there is no fault in 
An Incident. The writer has felt and caught the simplicity and 
pathos of the negro character where another might have been dis- 
posed to ridicule. Such work as these two writers have done re- 
quires nervous, delicate strokes, shades with no false tints. They 
have worked their canvas well. We forgot the critic in us while 
reading these sketches. L,et us have more of this class of work. 



In any contemplated literary work the all important question the 
writer should ask himself before he attempts discussion is whether 
he is competent to deal with the subject. The two chief requisites 
of competency are knowledge of material and freedom from bias. 
The writer of "The Spirit of the French' 1 '' in the November issue 
of the Samp den-Sidney Magazine has shown an utter disregard for 
one or both of these essentials. He boldly arms himself with dis- 
secting knife, and proceeds to lay bare that subtle universal "Spir- 
it" of a great people, its throbbing heart, and trace its moral pulse 
beats. Poor France ! Our Doctor reveals her foul and stinking 
ulcers, and gloats o'er her early death. 

Now if he has never been among the French, he is to be censured 
for attempting this essay. If he has, he must have been both blind 
and deaf. If he has read, he has entirely misread, French constitu- 
tional history. L,et him reconsider some of his postulates : was 
"Hugo scornfully indifferent?" Have the French a pessimistic 
view of life? Is France de facto a republic? How much more 
exclusive are the French than the English? As to the race prob- 



Exchanges 118 

lem in France, he seems as ignorant of its inwardness, as Mrs. 
Ginnis of the race troubles in North Carolina. Our author's style 
is in keeping- with his appropriations of stale platitudes. A surplus 
of adjectives, a strained effort after the epigram. This may be the 
result of holding a brief. 

vVe acknowledge receipt of the following Magazines : — 
The Hampden-Sidney Magazine, The Southern Collegian, Mnem- 
osynean, Vanderbilt Observer, Student Life, Western Maryland Col- 
lege Monthly, The Georgian, The College Message, The Trinity 
Archive, The Converse Concept, Mount St. Joseph Collegian, Elizabeth 
Chronicle, The Bellvue High School Nondescript, The Erskinian, 
The William and Mary College Monthly. 

Limited space prevents us frem publishing a full list of our Ex- 
changes in this issue. 



Alumni Notes. 



H. B. HOLMES. H. M. LONDON. 

Chas. E. VanNoppen, '95, has recently been elected treasurer of 
the Continental Publishing- Company of New York. 

Whitfield Cobb, ex-'99, is principal of a flourishing- school in Marl- 
borough County, South Carolina. 

J. R. Baggett, '01, is one of the principals of Salem High School 
in Sampson County. 

R. H. Sykes, of the '98 Eaw Class, has recently secured the posi- 
tion of Stenographer and Typewriter to Tracy, Boardman and 
Piatt of New York city. 

Nelson B. Henry, who was Professor of Pedagogy here trom 1885 
to '87 is principal of Marvin Collegiate Institute, a flourishing 
school situated at Predericktown, Missouri. 

R. H. Wright, '97, is Professor of the English department at 
Oak Ridge Institute. 

E. K, Graham, '98, is assistant Principal of the Charlotte Military 
Institute. 

W. P. M. Curry, '94, who is principal of a large school at Raeford, 
N. C, is taking a non-resident post graduate course at the Univer- 
sity. 

Rev. John C. Troy, '76, of Jonesboro, has an interesting article 
on Chapel Hill in '75 and '76 in his "Scriptural Comments" recently 
published. 

The Class of '82 is of interest, to some at least, it being the class 
of President Alderman. It is as follows: — 

William Gales Adams, successful business man, Nashville, Tenn. 

Edwin Anderson Alderman, President University of North Car- 
olina. 

Alvis W. Allen. Deceased. 

R. T. Bryan, D. D., Missionary in China. 

A. T. Davidson, Died 1888. 



Alumni Notes 120 

E. A. Deschweinitz, Chemist in Government Employ, Washington. 

MacMurray Furgurson, Lawyer, Littleton, North Carolna. 

A. L. Grandy, Lawyer, Atlanta, Ga. 

David A. Hampton, Teaching- in Texas. 

Jonathan W. Jackson, General Manager Home Insurance Co., 
Chicago. 

John O. Jeffreys, Planter in Franklin County. 

David S. Kennedy, Teaching in Bertie County. 

Thomas W. Mayhew, Lawyer, Dead. 

Alexander W. McAlister, Manager Insurance Company in 
Greensboro. 

Henry Bruce Peebles, Insurance agent, Jackson, N. C. 

Frederick Nash Skinner, Episcopal Minister, Clinton, N. C. 

Thomas D. Stokes, Merchant, Richmond, Va. 

Richard S. White, Lawyer in Bladen County. 

George W. Whitsett, Dentist in Greensboro. 

George G. Wilson. Dead. 

Charles W. Worth, Commission Merchant, Wilmington, N. C. 

Augustus VanWyck, the recent Democratic nominee for Governor 
of New York, is an alumnus of the University of North Carolina, 
having graduated in the Class of '64. After the war he went North, 
settled in New York as a lawyer, and subsequently became 
Judge. 

The University is always in the lead no matter where we go. 
Wherever a representative body of any importance is gathered to- 
gether, there the University man will always be found filling with 
credit the positions of duty and honor. In the recently elected Gen- 
eral Assembly there are the following University men:— 

In the Senate : 

R. H. Speight, '66— '67, Edgecombe County. 

F. G. James, '75— '76, Pitt " 

I. F. Hill, '76—78, Wayne 

John N. Wilson, '78— '79 Guilford " 

R. L. Smith, '88, Stanly 

W. C. Fields, '69— '70, Ashe " 

In the House of Representatives : 

W. H. Carroll, '86, Alamance County. 

F. D. Winston, '79, Bertie 

G. H. Currie, '91, Bladen 



121 



University Magazine 



Locke Craige, '80, 

L. F. Hartsell, '95, 

S. L,. Patterson, '57— '60 

D. C. Allen, '55— '57 

J. O. Carr, '95, 

H. A. Foushee, Law '93, 

H. A. Gilliam, '91, 

H. W. Stubbs, '75— '77, 

Heriot Clarkson, '83— '84, 

W. A. Cochran, '96 

T. M. Gattis, '84, 

J. B. Leigh, '90, 

W. J. Nichols, '97, 

H. C. Wall, '58— '61, 

G. B. Patterson, '86, 



Buncombe County. 
Carbarrus 
Caldwell " 

Columbus 
Duplin " 

Durham 

Edgecombe " 
Martin 

Mecklenburg " 
Montgomery " 
Orange 

Pasquotank " 
Pitt " 

Richmond " 

Robeson " 



MARRIAGES 
M. Erwine, '93, on Wednesday October 19, 1898, was united in 
marriage to Miss Susan Connally, in Atlanta, Ga. 

At the Chapel of the Cross, in Chapel Hill, N. C, on October, 19, 
1898, Mr. W. R. Webb, '96, was married to Miss Louise Hall, young- 
est daughter of Dr. John Manning, our honored Professor of Law. 
Mr. Webb is assistant principal of the famous "Webb School" at 
Bell Buckle, Tenn. He was for one year after graduating Iustructor 
in English in the University. The Magazine; extends congratula- 
tions. 

At the First Moravian Church, Fairmount Avenue, below 17th 
Street, Philadelphia, on Thursday, September 29, 1898, Reverend 
Howard Edward Rondthaler, '94, was married to Miss Katherine, 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. E. McC. Baring. 

Mr. Charles Whitehurst Home, on November 23, at Edenton Street 
Methodist Church, Raleigh, N. C, was united in marriage to Miss 
Bessie, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Belvin. 



RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT. 

Philanthropic Hau,, 

Nov. 26, 1898. 
Whereas, Divine Providence has seen fit to remove from us our 



Alumni Notes 122 

esteemed fellow member and alumnus, Thos. P. Braswell, be it 
therefore 

Resolved I : That in his death the Philanthropic Society has lost 
a faithful member and the University a sincere friend. 

Resolved II : That we the members of the Philanthropic Society 
extend our deepest sympathy to the bereaved family and friends. 

Be it further resolved that these resolutions be spread upon a 
page of our minutes dedicated to his memory, and a copy of the 
same be sent to the afflicted family, to the University periodicals, 
and to the Rocky Mount Argonaut. 

H. P Harding ) 

J. K. Dozier [■ Committee. 

A. J. Barwick ) 

We clip the following- from the Durham Sun : — 

Fred Green is dead. The sad news shocked our community like a 
fire bell. He died at the post of honor, which is the post of duty. 
Today in his office about 2 o'clock, after an illnese of about an hour, 
he fell asleep. 

Frederick Augustus Green, son of Mr. and Mrs. Caleb B. Green, 
was born on the 21st of September, 1371. He was educated at the 
University ; was a rising young attorney, a member of the firm of 
Graham, Green and Graham and was popular and well equipped. 



College Record. 



JOHN DONNELLY. F. M. OSBORNE. 

Carolina 6 — Va. 2. 

Foundation of the Alumni Building- has been completed. 

The only class game of foot-ball played this season was between 
the Sophomores and Freshmen. The score was 11 to in favor of 
the Sophs. 

Dr. Hume delivered an address before the Shakespere Club of Ox- 
ford, Nov. 25. 

At the meeting of the Dialectic Society, Oct. 23, Dr. Battle presid- 
ed. It was the 50th anniversary of his presidency of the society. 

A few days since, the Pharmacy Department received a valuable 
gift from Mr. William K. Vanderbilt. The gift consisted of about 
forty specimens of medical herbs collected on Mr. Vanderbilt's es- 
tate of Biltmore. 

Work has been commenced on the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraterni- 
ty's chapter house. The building faces on the campus, and is situ- 
ated between the D. K. E. hall and the Methodist Church. 

Walter Brem, Jr., '96, is on the Hill again having entered the 
Medical Department. 

The list of University preachers for the year '98-'99 is as fol- 
lows: — Dr. Hoge, for December; Dr. Swope, for February; Rev. H. 
E. Rondthaler, for March; Dr. Turrentine, for April; and Rev. Mr. 
Millard, for May. 

The University Dramatic Club gave a performance of "The Little 
Rebel", by J. S. Coyne and "Evening Dress"by W. D. Howells, on the 
night of Dec. 9 th. The performance was greatly enjoyed by all 
those present. During the Christmas holidays the club will make a 
tour of Eastern North Carolina. 

The annual Junior-Soph debate between the Di and Phi societies 



College Record 124 

was held Saturday, Nov. 26 in the Di Hall. Messrs. Coffey and Woltz 
of the Di, and Johnston and Greening of the Phi, being- the deba- 
ters. The query, "Resolved, that Imperialism should form our fu- 
ture policy", was won by the Di's who represented the negative. 

Officers have been elected by the two Literary Societies for the 
Washington's Birthday exercises, to be held in the Phi Hall. The 
orators are F. M. Osborne, Di, and H. P. Harding, Phi. 

The base-ball schedule for next spring is being completed. Man 
ager J. R. Carr is trying to arrange for an extended Northern 
trip. 

The preparatory schools of the state have lately begun to take in- 
terest in foot-ball, and rapid development in this line can be seen 
already. On Nov. 19 a game was played on our athletic field be- 
tween William Bingham School and the A.&M. College teams. The 
score was 22 to 12 in favor of William Bingham School. 

Quite a number of the students attended the Winston Tobacco 
Fair. 

Messrs. Bernard, Phi and London, Di, have been elected Maga- 
zine editors to succeed Messrs. Harding, Phi and C. . Rrown, Di, 
who resigned. 

The Query selected for the Georgia-Carolina debate is "Resolved, 
That United States Senators should be elected by popular vote." 
Our representatives are T. C. Bowie, Di and F. D. Broadhurst, 
Phi. - 

The gymnasium has been lately fitted up with new apparatus. 
The game of basket-ball has been introduced by Mr. Calder, our 
new gymnasium director. 

The first regular meeting of the Historical Society for this year 
was held in the Chapel, Oct. 24. 

President Alderman has been asked to deliver the commencement 
address at Tulane University, New Orleans, May 3, 1899. 

Walter H. Page, editor of the Atlantic Monthly will lecture here 
Mar. 9, 1899. His subject will be "Contemporary literature and the 
men who make it." 

The University has joined with a number of American Universi- 
ties in offering educational aid to Cuban students. There will prob- 



125 University Magazine 

ably be several Cuban students here next session. This movement 
was first started by General Joseph Wheeler. 

Editors have been elected from the fraternities for the purpose of 
editing- the "Hellenian"(annual) for '99. In a meeting- held a few 
weeks ago F. M. Osborne was elected Kditor-in-chief , W. F. Bryan, 
Business Manager with M. Bellamy, Jr. and F. J. Coxe as Assistant 
Business Managers. With an efficient board of ten editors it is 
hoped that an annual will be published which will reflect credit up- 
on the editors and the University. 

For the purpose of stimulating interest in those who take no 
part in the editing of this publication, prizes are offered for poems, 
drawings and original work of sufficient merit to give them a place 
in the book. The competition for prizes is open to all. 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The first meeting of the Historical Society was held in Ger- 
rard Hall, Oct. 24, at 7:30 P. M. Mr. H. M. London was elected sec- 
retary for the ensuing year. 

The first paper of the evening was read by Dr. Battle. It was a 
very interesting account of the "Scotch Settlement of the Cape 
Fear," and was written by Mr. Donald Mclver, '97. 

The second paper was "Hatteras in '61", read by Mr. H. P. Hard- 
ing. Mr. Harding in his paper showed the value of this point to the 
Confederacy, and described the first Union Naval victory. 

For the remainder of the hour, Dr. Battle entertained the s.ociety 
with a sketch of some of the well known schools of North Carolina 
in earlier times, and their teachers. 

The second meeting of the Historical Society for the year, was 
held Nov. 14. The following papers were read: — 

1. "The Government of N. C. Under the Lords Proprietors", by 
Mr. E. J. Wood. A clear insight was given into the fundamental 
workings of this government and its marked effect upon the people 
of that time was clearly shown. 

2. "The Battle of Bentonville," by Mr. R. D. W. Connor. 

Mr. Connor gave a graphic description of this noted battle, sup- 
plemented by a diagram showing the plans of attack, and the rela- 
tive positions of the opposing forces. 

Dr. Battle continued his paper on the early schools of N. C, and 
pointed out some very interesting things concerning these schools 
and their noted teachers. 



College Record 



126 



SHAKESPERE CLUB. 
The regular monthl}' meeting- of the Shakespere Club was held 
Tues, night, Nov. 15th. After a few brief remarks by Dr. Hume, on 
the value of Shakesperian and related subjects for training in liter- 
ary composition, the following papers were read: — 

1. "An unturned leaf in the love affairs of Hal's Queen", by Mr. 
B. B. Eane. Much skill was shown in the use of Drayton's poetical 
letter to Owen Tudor from Katherine of Valois, and the various 
scattered traditions. 

2. "Warwick, the king maker, in drama and novel", by Miss Bes- 
sie Whitaker. This paper was a valuable and charmingly written 
one on the difference in conception and method between "Henry 
the Sixth" and Bulwer's "Last of the Barons." 

3. Mr. E. D. Broadhurst gave a brief discussion of critical selec- 
tions to show that Shakespere's treatment of Richard III is natural 
and consistent, and was a good psychological study. 

4. Mr. H. B. Holmes closed the evening's program with an essay 
on "Margaret of Anjou in Shakespere and Scott." 




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North Carolina University Magazine. 

Old series, vol. xxix. no. 3— -February, \m. New series, vol. xvi. 



THE LEAST OF ALL LANDS. 



Not long" ago I received a pamphlet written by a West- 
ern lawyer on a visit he had made to the Holy Land. His 
visit was only incidental to an eastern tour, and consist- 
ed of a few days spent in Jarusaletn and environs, a time 
sufficient for a thoughtful man who knozus before he 
goes to deepen many impressions and to gain much 
good. But he regarded it as sufficient to enable him 
to judge ot the whole land, to pass conclusively on the 
authenticity of revelation, and generally to criticise the 
plans of the Almighty. Without following all his va- 
garies, I wish to mention two points because they serve 
to show how dangerous is ignorance on serious mat- 
ters. He was scandalized at the abominable harbor 
of Joppa — or rather at the lack of harbor, and he was 
mystified at the Israelites leaving Egypt, the most fruit- 
ful land in the world, for the barren hills of Judea. 

Now suppose all the land was as barren as Judea, 



128 



University Magazine 



which is not the case; suppose Judea had always been 
as barren as it was in after centuries of misgovernment 
and oppression, which is disproved by the land itself 
and by the testimony of the Roman historians. 
This is a strange criticism for an American to make. 




DAMASCUS GATE— JERUSALEM. 

(OUTSIDE OF WHICH CHRIST SUFFERED.) 

Has he forgotten that the Israelites were slaves in 
Egypt, and that our forefathers left the fairest lands 



The Least of all Lands 129 

on earth, for an unknown land, and even for the bar- 
ren shores of New England, that the} 7 might have what 
the Israelites sought in Palestine — freedom to worship 
God. More than three thousand years have passed 
since the Exodus, and the fellahin of Egypt are to-day 
mere paddlers in mud and water, as the Israelites then 
were the most degraded of all people in civilized lands, 
without progress and without hope and without hap- 
piness, while Israel went up from their fertile fields to 
develop in her rocky hills, a literature, a law, a civil- 
ization, that rules the world today. Analogies are not 
wanting. Switzerland and Scotland are small and rug- 
ged lands, but their influence in the world is out of all 
proportion to their size and their products. But both 
like Judea, produced what the world needs most — men\ 
men of charcter, men of God. 

And in the production of men of righteousness, the 
isolation of the land, as emphasized by its lack of sea- 
ports, is one of the most important factors. You sail 
along its entire coast-line and } 7 ou see not a single in- 
dentation save the Bay of Aere, where Carmel 
thrusts its bulk out into the sea. Even this bay is too 
open for a fort and seems to have been always controll- 
ed by the Phoenicians. Along the coast-line lies a 
low plain, sometimes wide, sometimes narrow, but 
eve^where giving unmistakable evidence of having 
been under the sea. Had it remained so, had the sea 
came up to the high lands, turned the low passes into 
inlets, the valleys into bays, the headlands into penin- 
sulas, and the outlying hills into islands, how different 
would have been the history of the land! We would 



130 University Magazine 

have had a people of adventure and commerce, a people 
gathering to themselves the wealth and art and culture 
of many lands. But the world already had the Phoenic- 
ians, and it had the Greeks. What it needed was 
Israel — a people concerned about righteousness and 
nursing - and developing - the deposit of Divine truth 
imparted to it. So God gave it that stiff, hard coast 
line, with th^ surf breaking upon the unyielding - shore, 
and broad sea beyond, stretching to the horizon, to rep- 
resent the great world for which it was preparing a 
blessing. 

On the South there lay the desert — not the broad ex- 
panse of sand that we picture to ourselves under that 
name — for that was a sea that man early loved to 
navigate with the faithful, patient beast that is still 
called the "ship of the desert." But this desert, the 
"Negheb, " or South-country was a vast tangle of rocky 
ridges and deep defiles, inhabited by wild and hardy 
tribes, never conquered because never found by the 
armies that pursued them, yet ready to spring as it were 
from the earth itself to harass a baffled and retreating 
foe. 

And on the east lay the great gorge. This gig*antic 
"fault", really begins far up in Syria, separating the 
great ridges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon. There is 
a beautiful valley with snow-capped mountains on 
either side. It is divided by a watershed, the Orontes 
flowing north; the Leantes, south. At this watershed 
is one of the earliest seats ©f the impure nature-wor- 
ship of the Phoenicians; when the Romans built temples 
on the Phoenician foundations, and wondered — as we 

\ 



The Least of all Lands 



131 



wonder to-day — at the three great stones that make a 
foundation wall 180 feet long-, and at the yet greater 
stone that lies in the quarry near b} r . The Iveantes 
would naturally have flowed on through Palestine. 
But this river, polluted at its source, by the most cor- 




B RIDGE OVER THE JORDAN. 

(NEAR JERICHO.) 

rupt form of heathen worship, was not to be the river 
of the Holy Land. Just before it could enter Pales- 
tine it meets a great mountain mass that turns it west- 



132 University Magazine 

ward, carving - its channel a thousand feet deep, and 
entering" the Mediterranean near Tyre. This moun- 
tain-barrier marks the northern boundary of Israel. 
South of it rises the Jordan, fed by streams from all 
sides, which g-ather into the "Waters of Merom," a 
shallow lake lying - just above the level of the sea. 
Krom this time onward the course of the Jordan is 
unique among - all the rivers of the world. Breaking 1 out 
of Iv. Huleb, as it is now known, in a deep g"org"e, it 
falls in the course of nine miles nearly seven hundred 
feet, where it spreads out into the beautiful Lake of 
Galilee, lying" 682 feet below the Mediterranean. 
Kmerg-ing' from this it runs in a swift, strong" stream 
sixty five miles into the Dead Sea, whose surface lies 
1292 feet below the Mediterranean, and whose bottom 
is over a thousand feet deeper still. The river is well 
named "Descender," and it has well fulfilled its mis- 
sion as a Divider. The consciousness of this "great, 
g-ulf fixed" is always with you in Judea. Look east- 
ward and almost everywhere you see the outline of the 
nearer hills, sharp and distinct ag"ainst the distant blue 
of "the other side", and in between — nothingness. It 
separated between two great mountain masses, but 
yet more between two great civilizations. Looking" at 
the whole land we may say, as was said of Rebekah, 
"Two manner of people are in thy womb." To the 
east was E}sau, the nomad of the desert; to the west, 
Jacob who inherited the promises. Thus was Israel 
hedg"ed in on every side, for the fulfilment of his mis- 
sion. 



The Least of all Lands 133 

Yet was lie in the very centre of the ancient world. 
The great roads that united Assyria, Babylon, Dam- 
ascus, ©n the one side, with Egypt, Tyre and Rome on 
the other, all passed by the foot of Israel's highlands. 
In Northern Israel was the Plain of Ksdraelon, where 
all roads crossed — the great battle-field between the 
E)ast and the West from the time of the Pharoahs to 
the time of Napoleon. And Northern Israel, fair and 
fertile and open to the world, became entangled with 
other nations, lost the tenor of its true mission, perished 
and passed away. It was in the highlands of Judea, 
most isolated and most barren, that the ideal of right- 
eousness longest survived and Israel's church and 
state reached their highest development. And here 
is Israel's one enduring - city. No site was less likely 
for a great city. With no rich surrounding- country 
to feed it and develop its industries; with no harbor, 
or thoroughfares of commerce to promote trade; never 
for any length of time the seat of extensive empire; 
what is the secret of Jerusalem's four thousand years 
of life? There is but one. Its first king - , which we 
know, was Melchi-zedek, king - of Righteousness. The 
ideal of its prophets was of a king-dom of righteous- 
ness, and without its gate suffered for the sin of the 
world Jesus Christ the Righteous. 

And from its gates, along - the great roads that went 
out into all the world, and across the sea — no longer a 
barrier but become a highway — went the messengers 
of the Gospel of Peace, preaching - the kingdom of God. 
And although Israel according to the flesh knew not 



134 



University Magazine 



its King - , and Israel's children still weep over the foun- 
dations of their ruined Temple, the time will come 
when Jerusalem shall thorw opens its gates, and Israel 
shall say, "Blessed is He that cometh in the name 
of the Lord." 

Peyton H. Hoge. 




WAILING PEACE OF THE JEWS. 



EDMUND FANNING. 



Edmund Fanning - was descended from one of the 
most ancient families of Ireland. His great-grand- 
father, Edmund, who was the first to come to this coun- 
try, married Catherine, daughter of Hugh Hays, Earl 
of Connaught. When Cromwell came into power Ed- 
mund, the first of the name, who was a Captain in 
King Charles' army, was forced to flee from his home 
in Kilkenny to New England, taking - with him his wife 
and son, Edmund. With many others in the same 
plight they were forced to work their passage over and 
finally landed at New London. 

Governor Winthrop of Connecticut soon learned their 
history and became a very kind and valuable friend. 
He settled them on Fisher's Island, a small island 
about fifteen miles from New London at the head of 
Long - Island Sound. This island has remained in the 
family from that time. Edmund soon became one of 
the first thirteen proprietors of Stonington, Connecti- 
cut. He had three sons, one of whom was Edmund, 
who was born in Ireland. 

Edmund, the second of the name, had five sons. 
One of these was Captain James Fanning - , who married 
Hannah Smith of Long - Island, by whom he had six 
sons. Of these six sons one was Col. Phinehas, and 
another was the subject of this sketch. It seems 
rather odd that during - the Revolution Col. Phinehas 
Fanning - was Washington's commissary on Long - Island, 



136 University Magazine 

while his brother EMmund was at the head of a Brit- 
ish regiment. Phinehas seems to have been the only 
member of the family to espouse the cause of the col- 
onists. 

EMmund Fanning - , the subject of this sketch, was 
born on Long - Island in 1737. He was educated at Yale, 
where he was graduated with honor in 1757. In 1764 
he received the degree of Master of Arts from Yale 
and Harvard, and in 1772 the same degree from Colum- 
bia College. In 1774 the degree of Doctor of Civil 
Laws was conferred ©n him by Oxford, and in 1803 
that of Doctor of Laws by Yale and Dartmouth. When 
he came to North Carolina he was probably the best 
educated man in the State. As has been said of him, 
"The annals of our State present no other, and the 
Union scarcely, if indeed a single instance, of an indi- 
vidual crowned at so early an age with this high liter- 
ary distinction from such reputable and numerous 
sources, abroad and at home." 

Fanning came to North Carolina and settled at Hills- 
borough, where he was sworn in as an attorney in 1760. 
In 1763, he was appointed Registrar of Orange County, 
and in the same year Colonel of Orange. In 1765 he 
was appointed Clerk of the Superior Court. In 1767 
he succeeded Maurice Moore as Judge. In 1776 he re- 
ceived from General Howe the commission of Colonel, 
and raised and commanded a corps called the "King's 
American Regiment of Foot." He was appointed Sur- 
veyor-general, which position he held for sometime. 
In 1794 he was appointed Governor of Prince Edward's. 
Sometime previous to this, about 1771, he became 



■ 



Edmund Fanning 137 

Ivieutenant-g-overnor of Nova Scotia. About 1808 he 
was commissioned as a Brig-adier General in the Brit- 
ish army and later became a General. In 1815 he mov- 
ed to London where he died in 1818, leaving- three 
daughters. 

Fanning- is best known from his connection with the 
trouble with the Regulators. All the historians vie 
with each other in heaping- invectives upon this so-call- 
ed extortioner. Why it is that Fanning- is selected 
especially as a recipient of their vile epithets, it is hard 
to say, — except that he was one of the most prominent 
citizens, and held quite a number of prominent posi- 
tions. With many he was unpopular, and the follow- 
ing- lines by Rednap Howell are said to express the 
then prevailing- sentiment. Frohock, spoken of, was 
a friend of Fanning's and Clerk of the District Court 
in Rowan. 

"Says Frohock to Fanning-, 'to tell the plain truth, 
When I came to this countr} 7 I was but a youth. 
My father sent for me ; I warn't worth a cross, 
And then my first study was to steal for a horse. 
I quickly g-ot credit and then ran away 
And haven't paid for him to this very day.' 
Says Fanning- to Frohock, ' 'tis folly to lie ; 
I rode an old mare that was blind of an eye, 
Five shilling-s in money I had in my purse ; 
My c@at it was patched but not much the worse. 
But now we've g-ot rich and it's very well known 
That we'll do very well if they'll let us alone,' " 



138 University Magazine 

Another well-known rhyme of the day was as fol- 
lows; 

"When Fanning- first to Orange came 

He looked both pale and wan, 

An old patched coat upon his back, 

An old mare he rode on; 

Both man and mare warn't worth five pounds, 

As I've been often told; 

But by his civil robberies 

He's laced his coat with gold." 
Limited space will not permit much mention of his 
connection with the Regulator's trouble, suffice it to 
say that all his actions were seconded and approved by 
the best men of the county such as Francis Nash, 
Maurice Moore, and Judge Henderson. It is often 
stated that his house was demolished and he beaten. 
This was so with nearly all the citizens of Hillsbor- 
ough. Among those beaten were such men as Thomas 
Hart, Alexander Martin, Michael Holt, and John Lit- 
terell, who was clerk of the Crown. Cel. Gray, Maj. 
Lloyd, Francis Nash, John Cooke, Tyree Harriss, and 
Judge Henderson would have been treated in the same 
manner had they not escaped. 

In the minutes of the Assembly for January 25th, 
1771, is found the following, which considering the 
fact that the body was composed of such men as 
Cornelius Harnett, Willie Jones, Griffith Rutherford, 
and others of the same stamp, should clear Fanning's 
name of all charges: "Col. Edmund Fanning, a mem- 
ber of this House, having been charged in the public 



Edmund Fanning- 139 

papers with many things injurious to his character, 
both as a Representative of the people and a member 
of the communnity; and besides these circumstances 
of common fame, having - had many accusations and com- 
plaints exhibited against him to the Assembly, the 
House proceeded to inquire into the facts laid to his 
charge, and after the strictest examination, find the 
several accusations against him to be false, wicked and 
malicious, arising - from the malevolence of a set of in- 
surgents, who in defiance of the dictates of humanity, 
and of the laws of the country have atrociously injured 
his person, property, and character. 

"The house therefore in common justice Resolve, 
That, the aspersions thrown upon the character of the 
said Col. EMmund Fanning - are groundless, base, and 
scandalous, and that as far as anything - has appeared to 
this House his conduct has been fair, just and hon- 
orable both as a member of this House in particular 
and of the community in g-eneral." 

The minutes of the Assembly show that Fanning 
was highly respected and thoroughly trusted. He was 
continually mindful of the welfare of the people whom 
he represented. At one time he was on a committee with 
Richard Caswell and Cornelius Harnett -to settle the 
public accounts. At another meeting he presented cer- 
tificates from the County of Orange, recommending that 
certain infirm persons be excused from paying public 
taxes. He introduced a bill to lessen the number of 
public claims, diminish the public debt, and relieve the 
poor of the burden of taxation. He served on a com- 
mitte to regulate the practice of the court ot chancery 



140 University Magazine 

with Nash, Person, Harnett, and Maurice Moore. In 
questions before the House, Fanning - was always found 
on the side with Howe, Rutherford, Harnett, Blount, 
and Willie Jones. 

In the list of trustees of Queen's College, at Char- 
lotte, Edmund Fanning-'s name is first mentioned and 
there is little doubt that he was actively engaged in 
its establishment. 

It is evident that the historians have grossly misrep- 
resented him, giving- the statements ©f the Regulators 
a?, their authority and never mentioning the fact that 
the law abiding citizens of the state, such as Caswell, 
Harnett, and Jones, had for him the greatest respect. 

Edward Jenner Wood, '99. 



THE MELANCHOLY DAYS. 



Hangs round us oft, with deepest mystery fraught, 
A darksome cloud, where gloom and sorrow blend, 
Which to our mortal eye revealeth naught 
But misery, care, and death, the awful end. 
And shrouded thus we grope about, nor lend 
One little smile to drive the care away, 
One ray of sunshine from our face, to rend 
The cloud that shuts us from the light of day. 
But now, as from the present we survey 
The past, where hovered over once that pall, 
The mists by time have been dispelled away 
And light suffuses radiant over all; — 
And lo, what joy, what pleasures round us strown 
Wrapt in those ebon folds — had we but known! 

Paul C. Whitlock, '98. 



THE INFLUENCE OF HOLLAND UPON AMER- 
ICAN INSTITUTIONS. 



The story of Holland's direct influence upon the 
English-speaking world has long - remained an ommitted 
chapter. 

Washington Irving's coarse caricature of the early 
New Yorker is, through ignorance, too often accepted 
as a typical representation of Dutch character; Many 
American professors of history, also, are unfamiliar 
with the one republic that was the training - school of 
our founders, and the great example of our revolution- 
ary and constitutional fathers. 

Throughout their whole history the Dutch have been 
the exponents of those very ideas upon which the high- 
est civilization of to-day is founded, which are the 
cardinal principles of modern republicanism. Else- 
where in Europe, feudalism had sapped the strength 
of nations and robbed the people of their liberties; but 
the Dutch had with studied success, kept this tinseled 
relic of barbarism away from the Fatherland. 

By hard-fought battles, on land and on sea, the 
Hollanders were the first to claim, and to secure, the 
recognition of those fundamental principles of our mod- 
ern society, "no taxation without the consent of the 
taxed;" "that power under God originates with the 
people," and "that Governments exist for nations, and 
not nations for Governments." 



Influence of Holland ufton American Institutions 143 

They were also the first to introduce into the common 
life of her people the many modern comforts, to dignify 
their homes with the productions of art, . to place the 
printed Bible in the hands of peasant and scholar alike. 

In the words of a prominent historian : "In the 
sixteenth century the common people of the Nether- 
lands, owing - to their intelligence and their diversifi- 
ed industries, were," what we like to say of Americans 
to-day, "the best fed, the best clothed, the best educat- 
ed, and the most religious people in the world." 

The contrast that England presented at this time 
was very- decided; one too, that is very much to her 
disadvantage. Her people were exceedingly poor 
agriculturalists; her great product, wool, had to be 
sent to the Netherlands to be woven into cloth: her 
masses were densely ignorant, and lacked the most 
ordina ~y comforts of the Dutch; while learning was 
confined almost solely to the court and to the church. 

But the peaceful and liberty-loving career of the 
brave Hollander was soon to be sorely tried. 

His political progress and religious freedom had giv- 
en offence to Catholic Spain. What a trial. What a 
contest. For eighty long years peace was expelled 
from this land, and one of the smallest nations of the 
globe was involved in a life-and-death-struggle with 
the greatest Power of the age. 

All alone, brave little Holland stood as the champion 
of the political and religious freedom of Europe, nay, 
of the world; fighting with insignificant numbers and 
by startling stratagem the openly cruel Spaniard on 
the one hand, and, ©n the other, contending with the 
treacherous Queen Elizabeth. 
2 



144 University Magazine 

In 1591, the seven northern Dutch provinces, after 
the most cruel conflict of modern times, formed the 
first United States in a federal republic. 

For nearly twenty years preceding*, thousands of 
Dutch citizens had been fleeing - to the adjacent 
countries, to escape the severe tasks and the horrible 
inquisition imposed upon them by Phillip II. In their 
flig-ht for refugee and safety, tens of thousands braved 
the dark and stormy North Sea, and settled in the 
southern and eastern counties of England. 

These refugees, by their mechanical ingenuity and 
progressive sentiments, with the love of freedom of 
thought and of action, so leavened that section with 
their own individuality, that henceforth it rapidly 
developed into the leading - mechanical and industrial 
section of England, — the centre of English Protestant- 
ism, the chief seat of martyrdom, the recruiting - ground 
of Cromwell's Ironsides, and the "home of probably 
three-fifths of the future settlers of New England. 

In their settlement, it was made incumbent upon 
every foreign workman to take and train at least one 
English apprentice, thus sending - to school not less than 
fifty thousand Englishmen, not only in industry, but 
also in religious and political toleration and republican 
ideas of government, — the grandest University the 
world has ever known; indirectly the Alma Mater of 
our young America. 

Historians acknowledge that these refugees achieved 
the industrial and commerical revolution of England; 
that to them is to be attributed the change from a 
nation of shepherds and agriculturalists, to that of a 
nation of machinists and manufacturers. 



Influence of Holland upon American Institutions 145 

The ingenuity of the Dutch is well-known, — their 
improvements in art, their contributions to science, 
their pre-eminent success in commerce and finance, — the 
nation being at one time mistress of the seas, and also 
the founder of the first succesful modern banking- 
system of the world. 

But it was not alone in mechanical and commercial 
ingenuity that the Dutch were eminently conspicuous. 
They were foremost in learning, in scholarship, in 
literary influence. 

Erasmus, the greatest scholar and literary teacher 
of the reformation; Coccejus, the great theologian; 
Rembrandt, the immortal painter; Grotius, the father of 
modern international law, and Vondel the great poet and 
dramatist, is part of Holland's contribution to the 
world's galaxy of great men. Leyden's great Univer- 
sity from its beginning, has ranked among the leading 
institutions of th« world; an institution established to 
commemorate the siege of Leyden; a conflict where 
sublime heroism and awe-inspiring endurance were so 
displayed, that thev have filled with admiration a 
wondering world; a heroism that will ever stand in 
lonely grandeur, unequalled in all the history of War. 

The characteristics of countries are as distinctly 
transmitted as are those of individuals. This is clearly 
shown in the way that Dutch and English influences 
were brought to bear upon the Utited States. For 
nearly a generation after the Dutch had formed them- 
selves into a democratic republic, our early Pilgrim 
Fathers sought safety among them from the fires of 
persecution, then raging throughout England. From 



146 University Magazine 

the thousands of Hollanders who had settled, intermar- 
ried, and had been merged into the English people, 
they learned that there "was freedom of religion for 
all men" in the United States of the Netherlands. 

Thither they del, and for eleven years this home of 
refuge showered upon them her hospitality, accepted 
them as citizens, extended to them the enjoyments of 
her common schools and universities, and conferred 
upon them numerous municipal priviliges. Many of 
them married with the Dutch, making- Dutch and 
Pilgrim one. Here, before their daily observation, and 
beyond the experimental stage, the future founders of 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, 
and Pennsylvania saw successful methods of govern- 
ment — both local and national — in the one federal 
republic of the world. 

They lived in a land where there had long been 
practiced the principle that "all men are created free 
and equal", and where separation of Church and State 
had always been recognized. The} 7 lived in the only 
country where deeds and mortgages were registered, 
and where the Anglo-Saxon's mastering passion for 
transactions in land, could be conducted in fee simple. 

They saw the workings of a written ballot system 
in local self-government ; they saw municipal repre- 
sentation in State legislatures, and were made familiar 
with the powers of rulers and of departments of gov- 
ernments, defined by written constitutions. 

The office of State Governor and of National Presi- 
dent, the workings of State Senates and of National 
Senate, were constantly before their eyes. But, besides 



Influence of Holland ufton American Institutions 147 

these few features that we recognize as thoroughly 
American, there are others equally important. The 
supremacy and independence of the judiciary ; a com- 
mon school system ; freedom of religion ; freedom of 
the press ; the reform of criminal law 7 ; the office of 
District Attorney ; the right of counsel for defence ; 
the amalgamation of law and equity into one code ; and 
reform in the laws concerning the rights of married 
women : all these w r ere recognized and practiced in the 
Dutch Republic of the sixteenth century. It was un- 
der the tutelage of these institutions — not, it is true, 
developed to their present perfection, but rather seen 
in successful experiment — that thousands of the 
brightest, bravest, and most liberty-loving sons of 
England were schooled. In their migration to Amer- 
ica these colonists brought these ideas, as the funda- 
mental principles of new governments, instead of the 
intolerant and aristocratic precedents of their mother 
country. 

This influence is more apparent when we learn that 
William Penn, the son of a Dutch mother, and as con- 
versant in that language and literature as he was in 
the English, while writing his constitution of Penn- 
sylvania, was a refugee in Holland. 

New York, the Empire State, which led all other 
colonies in jurisprudence, and shared political influence 
with Massachusetts and Virginia, derived these high 
qualities of leadership from its Dutch founders. 

Connecticut, the most typical American common- 
wealth, with her written constitution and secret bal- 
lot system, was so singularly like the Democratic 



148 University Magazine 

Republic across the sea, that its analogy is directly 
traceable. 

Furthermore, historic records prove that eighty per 
cent, of the original settlers of the New England 
States came from the southern and eastern counties of 
England, where had settled thousands of Dutch re- 
fugees. 

Finally, at the close of the Revolutionary War, in 
what direction did our founders turn most hopefully 
for a political example? To Sparta or to Athens, with 
their rude republican forms? to the richness and splen- 
dor of a Roman republic? to England, with her aristo- 
cratic precedents? or to the successful little republic 
that had been so largely instrumental in shaping the 
career of the colonies? 

Let the makers of our nation answer. — 

"America is under great obligations to such men as 
you," wrote Washington to Professor Lmzae, of the 
Universit}^ of Leyden, the Dutch republican and teach- 
er, the friend of Washington, Adams, and Jefferson. 

Still more direct is the testimony of Franklin : "In 
love of liberty and bravery, and in defence of it, Hol- 
land has been our great example". 

Lastly, how fitting in the mysterious workings of a 
Divine Providence, that the two World-Heroes, mould- 
ed by similar ideas and experiences, should clasp hands 
across the two centuries of time and stand revealed as 
the highest types of republicanism. Holland, with 
her William of Orange, diplomat, and military leader, 
the embodiment of christian strength and character, 
whom the Dutch reverently know as "Father Wil- 



Influence of Holland upon American Institutions 149 

liam"; America, with her Washing; ton, conservative, 
yet aggressive, general and statesman, the model of a 
new world and the "Father of his Country." 

Let us refuse then to believe that our government 
was either the direct result of English influence or an 
original creation of our Constitutional Fathers. 

In this age of fact and formula let us not forget "to 
place honor where honoris due." Let the spirit of 
truth, so characteristic of American manhood, show to 
the world its cosmopolitan nature ; let it not forget its 
indebtedness to the "Silent Wiliam", and his sturdy 
nation, the true progenitors of our peculiar, highly suc- 
cessful social political system. To their courage, their 
clear sightedness, their heroic self-denial and devotion 
to principle are we largely indebted for this goodly 
trinity of Anglo-Saxon political virtues, the right of 
personal security, the right of private property, and 
the right of personal liberty. Upon the lofty summit 
of the grand and everlasting principles of our political 
creed, stands the Acropolis of our Democracy, the won- 
der and the hope of the downtrodden nations of the 
earth ; a stronghold against the assaults of the fu- 
ture. 

Chas. Iy. Van Noppen. 

Graduating Oration, 1894. 



LIFE ON THE HOLIDAY CAMPUS. 



One day last autumn three very odd looking - fellows 
strolled into the campus. They were dressed just 
alike. Each wore a long-tailed gray coat, a white 
waistcoat, a tall standing" collar and a black neck-tie. 
For trousers they had white running pants. They 
were bare from their knees down. Although stran- 
g-ers here they avoided the walks and driveways and 
spent the afternoon in running foot-races on the low 
open plot of ground at the eastern side of the campus. 
A carriage came along" going to the ball park. The 
dog which trotted behind ran out and barked, whereat 
the three frightened gray-coats tumbled over one an- 
other as they rushed off, each loudly shouting" his name 
as they went. The man in the carriage said, "Kill- 
deers, to be sure, I'd like to have a shot at 'em." 

Late that nig-ht when the weary athletes had forgotten 
their bruises and were at rest, three pairs of bare feet 
came over the fence of the athletic park and alighted 
with their owners on the ploug-hed and trampled sands. 
Again the gray-coats chased each other, looking" for 
benighted insects as they ran and shouted in their glee. 
Out in the starligfht I heard them calling" each to 
others ""kildee, kildee," Three little wanderers who 
had stopped to enjoy our hospitalities! What tales 
would they have to tell of us when they chose to leave? 
Three close friends they were, banded for the .winter 



Life on the Holiday Campus 151 

months to struggle a,gainst starvation and snow and 
ice, against hawks and dogs and guns. 

The last week of December was warm and bright. 
The days were such as birds most enjoy and they 
came on the campus in numbers. In all I counted 
twenty-one species. A drove of forty-two Meadow- 
larks patrolled the campus from gate to g'ate, through 
grove and open, searching for food among the leaves 
and grass. A Downy Woodpecker which lives in the 
trees near the South Building was to be seen each day. 
Early in the month he had dug out with his bill a cav- 
ity for his winter bed-room in the dead limb of a tree 
standing near the Library. So nice and cozy a retreat 
is it from the wind that early in the evening he often 
leaves his friends, the Chickadee and Titmouse, with 
whom he has romped all day, and hurrying off, soon 
tumbles into bed to dream away the long winter 
night. 

Downy had a cousin, the little yankee Sapsucker 
which had come from the far north to spend the winter 
months on the campus. He did not care for such noisy 
companions as Downy's friends, so kept apart by him- 
self, and at intervals during the day would announce 
his whereabouts by calling out in a plaintive voice. 

These two birds have a relative in common which 
came to the holiday campus. This was their big 
clumsy, country cousin, the Yellow-hammer, or Flick- 
er. He hardly knew how to behave himself among 
these large buildings and twice lately was almost 
caught while prowling around inside one of them. He 
does not hesitate to go in at a window if he finds one 
open. 



152 University Magazine 

One day just before the close of the year I heard a 
great outcry among" the branches of a larg-e Spanish 
oak near by; I hastened to the window and found the 
Flicker had g-ot himself into more trouble. A larg-e 
number of Blue-jays were feeding- in the grove. Many 
were searching - among- the leaves on the ground for 
acorns, which when found would be promptly carried 
up to a limb, held, and pounded open. While one was 
thus eng-ag-ed the Flicker's inquisitiveness had led him 
to venture too near, whereupon the Jay remonstrated 
loudly, screaming- and flaunting- her skirts about in a 
most excited manner. The Flicker was evidently 
quite abashed and retreated around the limb muttering- 
something to the effect that she 'need not make so ter- 
rible much fuss about nothing-.' There were two or 
three other Flickers in the grove and they seemed to 
enjoy the discomfort of their friend immensely. A 
moment later one of them alig-hted on the limb by his 
side and bobbing- its head in a most odd and quaint 
manner, offered by way of encourag-ment, its charac- 
teristic remark of "walk-up, walk-u-p, xvalk-uf).' 1 ' 1 

Just then a Sparrow-'hawk came around the corner 
of the building- and perched near by. It was Xan- 
tippe, the quarrelsome little lady bird we had watched 
about the campus so often last winter and wondered if 
she had a mate some where. Poor Xantippe has seen 
much trouble the past year. In the spring- she left 
the campus and went back into the fields to meet her 
mate, old Socrates perhaps. A little later some boys 
found their nest and destroyed it. Three eg-g-s, I be- 
lieve they said, it contained, three chocolate spotted 



Life on the Holiday Camftzis 153 

eggs. The pair must have found another nesting- site, 
however, for the past autumn when Xantippe again 
appeared on the campus she brought with her not only 
Socrates, but also a pair of young' birds. The Uni- 
versity atmosphere evidently proved too stimulating 
for the young- ones, for they soon returned to the coun- 
try. 

Xantippe 's favorite perch, as last winter, was on 
one of the goal posts in the Athletic park, while Soc- 
rates took up his headquarters on the topmost limb of 
a locust tree just outside the park fence. Here they 
would sit for hours at a time, fl} 7 ing' down now and 
then to capture some beetle or field-mouse, or else to 
chase away the Meadow-larks when they came too 
near. Sometimes they would both come and perch 
near the laboratory, high on the fourth floor, and nod 
to each other and look in at the wide windows. Then 
the boys would look up from their microscopes and 
call to each other that the little Hawks had come to 
look on again. One day just before Christmas a boy 
shot Socrates. For days his body lay in the sun and 
rain and wind. At length one of the Professors saw 
it and picked it up saying, "poor bird." He laid it on 
a pile of coal with its face upturned to the cold gray 
sky. Then a friend buried the dead bird; buried him 
beneath the locust tree on which he had loved to sit. 

So Xantippe was left alone. Perhaps she was feel- 
ing sad this day while the Jays were so noisy and the 
Flickers so full of life. Near by the flock of Larks 
was feeding. Out on the sunny side of a big hickory 
the Sapsucker clung and drowsed. A little farther 



154 University Magazine 

away Downy and his companions were making - their 
usual amount of noise. From under the eaves of the 
New East Building - , Pigeons were cooing and feeding 
their young. Out in the ©pen ground the Kildeers 
were calling. 

Suddenly in the midst of this joy and laughter, feed- 
ing and calling, some boys came with a gun. Thick 
and fast were the discharges, loud and terrible was 
the roar. With loud shouts the Jays fled screaming to 
the woods. The Flickers went racing off in long gal- 
loping sweeps, all save one which with broken wing 
lay beating the ground. The Sapsucker was shot 
from his perch on the hickory. Two of the Meadow- 
larks failed to escape. Of the unsuspecting Pig-eons 
nine gave up their lives. They fell here and there. 
Their feathers were scattered on the walks, their dark 
blood stained the stone steps of the north entrance. It 
was a wild morning for the birds, their peace and joy 
were at an end, — the snake had entered the garden. 
The Killdeers fled for parts unknown, bearing their 
tale of horror and woe with them. 

Earlier in the day the hunters had killed a Rabbit 
and some Partridges. That night there was a feast. 
All the game was put together, Rabbit, Pigeon and 
Sapsucker; Partridge, Flicker and Lark, and was 
'In the cauldron boiled and baked.' 

The next day scarcely a bird was to be seen on the 
campus. The Jays kept far back in the large timber. 
Once a Flicker came t© the edge of the woods and 
looked across to the campus and sounded his drum-call 
on a dead limb. But no answering- note came 'back 



Life on the Holiday Campus 155 

from the silent campus, save faintly borne to his ears 
the laughter of the hunters starting- out again, at 
which he turned and fled back to the cover of the for- 
est. 

But Xantippe did not leave the campus. Where else 
should she go? Just before night she flew up to the 
New E}ast Building - for her roosting" place was under 
its eaves. Surely no hunter would think of eating - her, 
and for what other purpose would one wish to shoot 
her. Suddenly there was a roar beneath. Pains shot 
like steel blades through her body. Blindty, wildly 
she fled, over the spot where the Pig-eons had fallen, 
around the corner by the laboratory, but she did not 
look in now, out by the locust tree beneath which old 
Socrates slept, her head reeling- with pain, the hot 
blood choking- her throat. 

On, on across the open grounds toward the w T oods, 
that she may not fall until reaching - cover, instinctive- 
ly avoiding - her enemies even in death. Her wing-s no 
longer beat the air, they are now set and rigid, death 
clutches at her heart and throws his veil before her 
eyes. On, on she speeds, sinking lower and lower. 
She passes the campus wall, she nears the line of 
woods, and now low in the gathering gloom of the 
evening forest she sinks fainting, gasping, dying — and 
the last act of the holiday campus tragedy is at an 
end. 

T. Gilbert Pearson, '99. 



THE NEGRO IN THE SOUTH. 



Although expansion, imperialism, and the money 
question are at present upon the lips of almost every- 
body, there is no question of more vital importance to 
our union, or most certainly to our Southland, now 
pressing- for solution than the negro problem. We 
can no longer afford to stand idly by and allow this 
great question to remain unsettled. We must view 
the facts in the case coolly and without prejudice and 
act accordingly. The time is past when the negro is 
to be viewed as a people to be shielded and cared for 
by the predominant race. He now stands forth as a 
factor — a mighty factor in certain sections of the coun- 
try — in the political make up of our nation. For this 
state of affairs he is not responsible. It was forced 
upon him by those who had in view not his political or 
social welfare, but a desire to profit by the experi- 
ment. 

Slaves were introduced into this country something 
over two hundred years agx>. They were torn from 
their tribes and from the land which God had given 
them and were brought and placed in servitude to a 
race far superior to themselves in all that goes to make 
men. Here a new civilization dawned upon them, and 
though they have never been nor ever will be a vital 
part in that civilization, yet they have unknowingdy, 
by the management of those who had authority over 



The Negro in the South 157 

them, wielded a wonderful influence in the general 
make up and government of the Union. Their ser- 
vices were found to be unprofitable in the northern 
manufacturing- districts, so naturally the South be- 
came the slave market of the country. Here they 
could be worked profitably on the large cotton and to- 
bacco farms, and the southern planter became the type 
of prosperity and thrift. But not to remain so, for the 
states wherein slaves were unprofitable began a cru- 
sade against slavery. They were made "free states, " 
and from this trouble began. Soon the war clouds 
gathered, the southern states seceded, and the na- 
tion was in arms — South against North. The South 
fighting for what it believed to be a just and holy 
cause, the North to force the seceded states to return 
to the Union. The result is well known. The South 
was forced to yield and to submit to the humiliation of 
having the negro, who had been mere property and as 
subject to commands as horses or cattle, suddenly 
made the political equal of the white man, suddenly 
empowered with those God given rig'hts which an 
American citizen holds so dear. The white man who 
had owned five hundred slaves was now no more in the 
eyes of the law than the weakest of his former ser- 
vants. His vote was counted for no more than that of 
the negro. Should this have been done? We know 
that slavery was a bad thing and it is well that it was 
abolished, but it was not well for the negroes to be 
given the rights of citizenship in a civilization which 
they neither understood nor appreciated. They were 
imported as servants, not as citizens, nor have the civ- 



158 University Magazine 

ilizing influences which have been brought to bear on 
them in the generation which has passed since their 
emancipation made them more worthy citizens. They 
have introduced a problem into our political world 
which has caused untold trouble. 

Crazed by the powers and privileges conferred upon 
them, they were easily made the tools of designing - and 
unscrupulous white men, who led them against their 
own interests and those of the men who had owned 
them. The kind feelings which had existed between 
the two races as master and slave disappeared under 
the new regime. That breach which issued from the 
emancipation proclamation widened rapidly during the 
horrors of the reconstruction period, and each day of 
the thirty-four years which have since passed has 
more definitely drawn the line, until the closing years 
of the century find us face to face with a problem 
which threatens our national union and jeopardizes the 
prosperity and advancement of our Southland. We 
must view the facts — what these reveal is horrible, 
but true. However often we may hear the expression, 
"There is no North, no South," we must know that it 
is untrue. This threatening cloud of vice and ignor- 
ance, placed over our Southland by force of arms, 
forms a barrier through which brotherly love cannot 
penetrate. There is a North, there is a South, and 
will ever be until we can shake hands with our north- 
ern brother over the political grave of the negro. 

The history of the Anglo-Saxon race is the history 
of a predominant race wherever they have gone. 
Other races must give way to them; some have been 



The Negro in the South 159 

amalgamated, some driven to other lands, some exter- 
minated. But n@ page of their history shows them to 
us living- peaceably side by side with another race of in- 
ferior mental or physical qualities, enjoying- like priv- 
ileges and advantages; nor will the history of coming 
ages reveal to our posterity such a state of affairs. The 
white race will rule; the negro cannot hold his ground. 
He must give way to the thrift and intelligence of the 
white man. 

What is the history of the negro race? Morally and 
mentally they are and have ever been very much below 
the white race. The extreme difference in color is one 
of the least. The difference between temperaments, 
ideals, and possibilities for moral development are even 
more striking than the color line. The prisons are 
filled with them. The jails are crowded with them 
awaiting trial. According to statistics, compiled from 
reports of the penitentiaries of the following six repre- 
sentative southern states, Alabama, Arkansas, Louis- 
iana, Mississippi, North Carolina and South Carolina, 
there are five negroes to one white man in the prisons 
of those states, although the aggregate white popula- 
tion greatly exceeds the negro population. 

They seem to have an inherent nature to appropri- 
ate what does not belong to them and to commit many 
other crimes of more serious nature. Nor have these 
traits been in the least removed by the educating and 
civilizing influences which have been brought to bear 
on them within the last generation. These crimes are 
on the increase. And why? To one who knows the 
character of the negro the answer is easy. When un- 
3 



160 University Magazine 

der the supervision of a master, they had to work, and 
were provided with what they needed to live on; now 
they are not forced to work, and to live they resort to 
stealing - . And idleness produces other crimes. 

In the northern states where they are fewer in num- 
ber, these traits are still more clearly exhibited. In 
Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, New York, Ohio and 
Massachusetts there are, upon an average, sixty-three 
white men to one negro; yet statistics show that there 
are five and one half neg'roes to one white man in the 
state prisons. Here where the greatest steps have 
been taken towards their education we find that the 
percentage of their crimes is higfher than in the south 
where their education is less advanced. This would 
seem to be a blow to the popular theory of a certain 
class, that all the negro lacks is education and advan- 
tages of civilization to make an honorable citizen. A 
heavy percent, of the prison population both north and 
south have had advantages of education to a greater or 
less extent. Althoug-h upwards of eig-ht\ 7 million dol- 
lars have been g"iven them, besides enormous amounts 
raised by taxation, within the last generation to found 
colleges and schools, we find crime increasing* in a far 
greater ratio than is warranted by the increase in the 
population. They are thriftless and retard the prog"- 
ress of any section in which they are found in large 
numbers. 

The negro of to-daj 7 is not the neg*ro of the forties 
or fifties, or even the freed slave. The young" negroes 
will not work as did their fathers or grand-fathers. 
They prefer idleness and an empty stomach to work 



The Negro in the South 161 

and full rations, and resort to all manner of schemes 
to make a living - without working- for it. This is the 
negro as a rule. There are exceptions, of course, but 
these generally turn their attention to politics and do 
more harm than the more ignorant ones, by exhorting - 
them to stand up for their rig-hts. 

Let us consider the state of affairs in North Caroli- 
na. Here as elsewhere in the south the negro has been 
and is yet a most vital problem. There has never 
been a constitutional convention that was not caused 
by him, and there is no doubt, but that the next one, 
which will be in the near future, will be caused by 
him also. Designing white men elected by the negro 
vote within the last few years secured control of our 
state. The policy of government was that dictated by 
the negro voter, by the class Which owns only about five 
per cent, of the property, which pays only about five 
per cent, of the taxes of the state. Barring - all ques- 
tions of class and race differences, Is this state of af- 
fairs just? Yet we have been forced to accept this 
government, to live in counties with negro magistrates, 
negro school committeemen and negro county officers. 
Will the manhood of Anglo-Saxon bravery bear this 
longer? It is to be hoped not. For the protection of 
our homes and our property we must put an end to 
this manner of government. The recent race riots in 
this and in one of our sister states show what we may 
expect when the negro is in the ascendency. He must 
be checked. His voice in the affairs of the nation must 
be stilled. He must be placed in the position designed 
by God for him to hold. He must be a servant and not 
a citizen. 



162 University Magazine 

Heretofore our greatest troubles have been those 
connected with or arising - from his political power. 
The future shows nothing- pointing" to improvement so 
long as the ballot is within his hands. Take that 
away and in doing so we shall make the one great 
step, which must eventually come, towards ridding 
ourselves of this great problem. When this is done it 
is reasonable to suppose that many will emigrate of 
their own accord, but if they do not, and are still a 
source of trouble, then export them, but by all means 
cut off, without further delay, the ballot that is curs- 
ing our Southland, and put the negro in the place de- 
signed for him, for we read in Holy Writ that "God 
shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents 
of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant."'' 

William Sidney Wilson, '99. 



A VIEW OF CYRANO DEBERGERAC.* 



Who has not enjoyed so that he can never forget 
the inimitable adventures of that world renowned 
Gascon, D' Artag-nan? This hero now has a compan- 
ion in Cyrano de Bergerac. Cyrano, the chivalrous, 
the g-enerous, the witty, the poetic — the awfully ug-ly 
Gascon! To know him is never to forg-et him. It is 
impossible to follow the play throughout and not have 
admiration of the highest pitch for Cyrano. The rest of 
the characters serve only as a frame for his portrait. In 
this the play follows the unwise tendency of our modern 
play-writers, to g-ive some prominent actor room to 
star. In this connection it is said that Mr. Richard 
Mansfield has failed to realize the expectations of his 
many admirers in his personation of Cyrano in New 
York last autumn. 

But to our theme. — As we have to do only with the 
play it may be well to g-ive a condensation of the same 
for the benefit of those who have not as yet had the 
pleasure of reading- Miss Hall's translation or the 
orig-inal text. 

It is the year 1640. La Clorise is to be played in 
the great hall of the Hotel de Bourgog-ne. The assem- 
bling- of the motley audience takes up most of the first 
act. It is this part of the play which palls on so many; 



* — Cyrano de Bergerac : A play; Hy Edmund Rostrand : Trans- 
lated by Miss Gertrude Hall. New York ; Doubleday and McClure 
Co. 



164 University Magazine 

they say there's no sense in all those "Ohs" and "Ahs" 
and disconnected senseless remarks made by the pages, 
the fruit-vender, the pickpockets, and others; but do 
we not see an almost exact repetition of this, those of 
us who are so unfortunate as to arrive early, in our own 
small play-houses? With us the malady takes the form 
of an epidemic of peanut-popping- by those in the gal- 
lery (or "roost") and the dropping of the despised 
shells on the heads of the few who sit in the pit, while 
a small fire of discussion as to the propriety of the pro- 
cedure take place between those interested. This 
detail is very natural in our opinion and we would say 
that the hand of a master is seen in the depiction of 
life, real life, in the remarks of those composing* the 
embryonic audience. 

But. the first act only serves to introduce the charac- 
ters, of whom there are an innumerable company. It 
is at once seen that Cyrano is deeply, darkly, and des- 
perately in love with his cousin, Roxane, the niece of 
Armand de Richelieu. He does not dare tell her of his 
love because of his enormous nose which is "flabby and 
pendulous like a proboscis. ... hooked like a hawk's 

beak with mole upon the tip, etc. etc " These are 

Cyrano's own descriptions and show us his character 
both as a wit and as a man of sense. Though the 
bravest and most witt}' of men he is struck dumb with 
terror when in the presence of Roxane. Ivike the 
shrewd man that he is he resolves to write her a letter 
telling of his love, and straightway does so. Before 
he has a chance to deliver it he receives a note from 
Roxane making an appointment at the poet-pastry 



A View of Cyrano de Bergerac 165 

cook's, Regueneau. Cyrano comes an hour before time, 
resolved to give her his letter and flee — he who has 
killed eight men out of a hundred and put the rest to 
flight only the night before. Roxane appears and this 
dialogue ensues. 

Roxane There is some one whom I love. 

Cyrano. Ah .... 

Roxane. Oh, he does not know it. 

Cyrano. Ah .... 

Roxane. As yet .... 

Cyrano. Ah .... 

Roxane. But if he does not know it, he soon will. 

Cyrano. Ah .... 

Roxane. A poor boy who untill now has loved me 
timidly from a distance without daring to speak. 

Cyrano. Ah! .... 

But alas, Cyrano i : forced to hear the "poor boy's" 
name is not Cyrano de Bergerac, but Baron Christian 
de Neuvillete. Christian is a raw recruit in Cyrano's 
Company of Cadets, but is exceedingly handsome. 
One's first impression is that he is empty and light- 
headed. Roxane, according to the conceits of the time, 
so well ridiculed by Moliere in his Les Precieuses Ri- 
dicules, demands a love letter with all the affectations of 
the rhetorical school, to be written at once by Christian. 
Cyrano, generous soul that he is, knowing that 
Christian is utterly incapable of the task signs Christ- 
ian's name to his own letter which he has kept, and sends 
it to Roxane. Roxane is enchanted. By the help of 
Cyrano they are secretly married. The ceremony is 
performed just in time to save her from the wiles of the 



166 University Magazine 

Comte de Guiche. In revenge the Comte orders Christ- 
ian and his company of cadets to the front in the war 
then in progress with Spain. Cyrano writes the most 
passionate of letters to Roxane in Cristian's name. 
She is unable to resist the yearings of the love quick- 
ened by these letters and seeks nut her husband in the 
camp of the army. Christian knows for the first time 
of the letters and sees Cyrano's love. He shows a 
noble spirit by offering - to explain to Roxane; 
but Cyrano refuses to allow him. Cyrano g-ives him 
another letter and Christian puts it into his pocket. A 
battle follows and Christian is killed at the first volley. 
Cyrano's letter is found in his pocket. Roxane takes 
it out, kneeling - by his dead body and crying" subdued- 
ly while Cyrano stands bareheaded beside her* says 
Was he not an exceptional being - ? 

Cyrano. Yes Roxane. 

Roxane. A poet without a peer.... one verily to 
reverence? 

Cyrano. Yes, Roxane. 

Roxane. A sublime spirit? 

Cyrano. Yes, Roxane. 

Roxane. A profound heart, such as the profane 

never could have understood a soul as noble as it 

was charming - ? 

Cyrano{firm\y) . Yes, Roxane. 

Roxane(th.ros\ r 'mg herself on Christian's dead body). 
and he is dead! 

Can a psychologist label the emotions of such a man 
as Cyrano at this moment. Before him lies a beauti- 
ful woman who really loves him — his soul — througfh 
the form of a handsome boy — . What a man! 



A Viezu of Cyrano de Berg-erac 167 

The fourth act closes in the confusion of battle. 
Has not a climax been reached? Why prolong" the 
play? But we can not yet bid goodbye to Cyrano. 

Like a little child we cry: "More, more." 

In the fifth act. fifteen years later, Roxane is seen in 
black, wearing a widow's coif and long mourning veil. 
She is still faithful. Every morning she walks in the 
park belonging to the convent of the Sisters cf the 
Cross in Pari?. She wears the letter, found on Christ- 
ian's body, next to her heart. Cyrano comes every 
Saturday. The Comte de Guiche has been again re- 
fused. Cyrano has enemies by the score, for he likes to 
make them. He is wounded in the head by a worthless 
lackey, but gets out of his bed by stealth and comes to 
fill his appointment with Roxane — to tell her the news of 
the city in his old cheery way. But alas, he comes to 
die. Before his death Roxane recogmizes by instinct 
his love, and we must believe he died happy knowing 
that she did and that he had been faithful to his trust 
with Christian. 

Mention has been made of the inflluence of Moliere's 
Les Precieuses Ridicules. In Roxane we find the verv 
same weakness which brought disgrace to Magdalen 
and Cathos. It was this that made La Grange say: 
"IS air precieux n '# pas feulement infecte Paris, il 
s'est aussi repondu dans les provinces et nos douzel- 
les en ont hume leur bo)ine part. En un mot, 
c'estun ambig-it de precieuse et de coquette que 
leur personne.''' 1 His complaint was the common 
one of all the young gallants of the time who did 
not have a stock of sonorous phrases and ditties on 



168 University Magazine 

hand. Rostrand has taken Moliere's creation as the true 
type. 

Of the minor characters only those of the Comte de 
Guiche; the poet-pastry cook; and the thick headed 
priest are worthy of note. De Guiche, tilted bravo, 
unscrupulous, sensual, a married adventurer whose pas- 
sions and will are his law is ingeniously foiled by the 
courage and wisdom of Cyrano in situations that are 
intensely dramatic. The pastry cook who is more 
poetical than practical and supports a company of 
poetasters gives us the comic side of the combination 
of literature and self sacrifice seen in De Bergerac and 
and Roxane. 

Now what is it? Is it a great trag-edy, one that will 
take its place in literature with the recognized master- 
pieces? We do not think the theme one for a great 
tragedy: nor is it yet to be classed as a great comedy. 
As a romantic melo-drama it will take its place then, 
if it is to live in literature. Which remains to be seen. 
We have no doubt it may be made a stage success, full 
as it is of startling incidents and striking- passages. 

H. Legare Watson, '99. 



University Magazine. 

PUBLISHED SIX TTlMES" DURING THE COLLEGE YEAR BY 
THE DIALECTIC AND PHILANTHROPIC LITERARY SOCIETIES. 



Old series, vol xxix. no. 3— -February, \m. New series, vol. hi. 

PRICE SI. 50 PER YEAR - - - - 25 CENTS PER COPY. 



WILLIAM SIDNEY WILSON, '99, Editor-in-Chief, Di. 
Henry Mauger London, '99, Managing Editor, Di. 
William Stanley Bernard, '00, Phi. 
Claude Baker Denson, Jr., '99, Phi. 
Alonzo Edward Cates, '00, Di. 
Howard Braxton Holmes, '99, Phi. 
Francis Moore Osborne, '99, Di. 

WILLIAM EDWARD COX, '99, Business Manager, Phi. 

All literary communications should be addressed to the Editor- 
in-Chief. All business matters to the Business Manager. 
Entered at the Chapel Hill Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter. 



The Editor's Desk. 

'99 The Christmas holidays, long- looked for, 
quickly gone, but never to be forgotten, have visited 
us since our last issue. Many hemes throughout our 
county have been gladdened by the return of college 
boys and girls, but now the new year finds us back at 
our posts again, making another step toward the goal. 



170 University Magazine 

With many of us it is the beginning" of the end, and 
before the next holidays we shall have finished our 
college courses and shall have gone forth to test the 
stern realities of the world. 

No year of the century has been fraught with more 
eventful happenings than the year which has just pass- 
ed; and upon the proper solution of the problems aris- 
ing from these happenings depends the future welfare 
of our country. Our people are called upon to settle 
questions which touch upon the very foundations of 
our government; questions which do not come to us as 
if new born, but as the products of growth. They are 
the result of more rapid changes of ideas than of insti- 
tutions, and much time will be required for their ad- 
justment. The beginning of the solution of these 
problems has been begun, and no doubt the close of '99 
will bring to us many radical changes, which will 
greatly alter our past governmental policy. In view 
of these facts then it is well for the voung men in our 
Colleges and Universities to begin a proper study of 
these questions, for before very many years of the 
new century shall pass away the college boys of to-day 
will be the men of the country, and upon them to a 
great extent will fa.ll the solution of many of the ques- 
tions now before us. It may be truly said that '99 
has more possibilities and advantages for young men 
than any year of the century. 



Present The Magazine is greatly interested in an 
Meeds, article in the last University Record on 



The Editor's Desk 171 

"The Growth and Needs of the University," and no 
one realizes more than the editors of this publication 
that "this is not a statement of its ideals, ©r dreams, 
or desires, but of its urgent, immediate, pressing 
needs." 

While the University is congratulating- herself upon 
the fact that more and more of her sons are going- into 
industrial pursuits, and while many of the professors 
are realizing- that the time has come for a division of 
their departments, would it be out of place for us to 
consider whether additional instructors and assistants 
and a better equipment of the already existing- de- 
partments would not be of greater service to the 
youth of the State? 

The main question to be asked is, Do we really need 
an additional Professor of English, or professors of 
electrical engineering", mining- engineering-, civil en- 
gineering-? May it not be better to g-ive our students 
the most thorough training- possible in the foundation 
subjects of these professions, and then let them g-ain 
their technical knowledg-e in some one of the excellent 
schools of technolog-y? Would not the Agricultural 
and Mechanical College and the about-to-be estab- 
lished State Textile School be the proper field for their 
labors? No ©ne will deny that the very able and effi- 
cient force of the English department is inadequate to 
the needs of so large a number of students as are now 
taught here. At the oldest American College, which 
is a branch of our largest University, Freshman Eng- 
lish is taught by twelve instructors, including two full 
professors, to 412 men. 



172 University Magazine 

In a well equipped denominational College in west- 
ern New York, whose total number of students is 162, 
English is taught by five iustuctors among the num- 
ber being one full professor. These facts are from the 
Catalogues of 1898—99. Numerous ©ther instances 
might be cited to show that a similar proportion exists 
in other universities and colleges throughout the coun- 
try. These institutions, too, are in portions of the 
country where thorough preparation in English is giv- 
en by the public schools. Enable us then to use our 
own language with ease and force, and it can no long- 
er be said that while the University of North Carolina 
produces leaders of men it has never yet produced a 
scholar. 



Alumni Several years ago a movement was begun 
Hall. towards erecting a Hall at the University 
by the alumni of the institution. This movement was 
the outcome of two things, — first, the increased pat- 
ronage of the Universit}^ so crowded the lecture rooms 
and dormitories that more room became necessary; — 
secondly, the alumni wished to place some building 
here which would be a monument to their love for and 
devotion to their alma mater. And considering the 
present small appropriations made by the state, and 
the need for more room it was decided to place a build- 
ing to contain all the lecture rooms and offices of the 
University, and thus allow the present recitation rooms 
to be made into dormitories. The design for the build- 
ing was drawn by one of our leading' southern archi- 



The Editor's Desk 173 

tects, and the foundation which is of granite has been 
completed. In order to finish the building - , more 
money will be necessary. Let our alumni but see how 
much this building" is needed and we feel sure it will 
be hastily completed. 



Base-ball. Prospects are bright for a winning- 
team this spring - . Several of last year's stars are with 
us ag-ain, and from the scrubs and new men good play- 
ers are expected. The manag-er has a good schedule, 
comprising - games with the leading - Southern Colleges, 
besides the practice games to be played with the 
teams inside the state. There has never been more in- 
terest manifested by the members of the Faculty and 
student body in pure College athletics than at present. 
The career of oui^Foot-ball team shows what we can 
do when the united support of the college is given. 
Now let us get behind our men and show them that 
we are interested in them and in the end we shall be 
as proud of our base-ball team as we were justly proud 
of our last Foot-ball team. 



Let us not forget our advertisers. When you need 
anything look for the store that is advertised in your 
Magazine}, make your purchases there and tell the pro- 
prietor where you saw his ad. 



Book Notices. 



C. B. Denson, Editor. 

The Scientific Memoir oe Thomas Henry Hux- 
eey. In4voes. Vol. 1. London, McMieean and Co. 
1898, New York, D, Appeeton & Co. 

With Huxley as a writer of essays, everyone is more 
or less familiar. His style is known as a model famous 
for its combined clearness, force and elegance. His 
originality of thought and great critical ability are as 
marked as his style, and ensure him a secure place in 
literature. On the other hand, the work on which his 
reputation as a man of science rests, his solid and val- 
uable contributions to the progress* as distinguished 
from the diffusion of knowledge, has been, l\&e the mass 
of such work everywhere, published in journals of a 
highly technical character and of limited circulation. 
While this method of publication serves the purpose of 
science extremely well, in that new results are quickly 
communicated to students at work in a particular field, 
it is in the long run disastrous to personal reputation. 
The important truths of fact and idea are year by year 
culled from papers such as these of Huxley, become em- 
bodied in text-books and comprehensive treatises, and 
the original paper after twenty years is rarely read. 

In spite of Huxley's great originality and power, the 
majority of his contributions would doubtless meet 



Book Notices 175 

such a fate, were it not for this edition, in which his 
scattered papers are republished in a collected shape. 
These papers will be found to contain the birth of many 
of the general ideas, which today we look upon as ele- 
mentary truths of biology, and will always find read- 
ers among - such as are interested in the historical 
growth of science. The volumes will constitute the 
most successful memorial that could be erected to Hux- 
ley, and will undoubtedly do much toward continuing 
his personal influence for a strictly conscientious, un- 
biassed, and thoroughgoing study of nature. 

Among the fifty papers here reprinted, originally 
published between 1845 and 1859, the first naturally 
attracts attention. It is a brief communication, pub- 
lished in the London Medical Gazette, on the histologi- 
cal structure of human hair. Huxley was twenty 
at the date of this paper, which indicates that even as 
a young medical student, he was quite aware when his 
observations conflicted with the accounts of others. 

Man} 7 of the papers are the outcome of observations, 
made during the voyage of H. M. S. Rattlesnake round 
the world, 1846-1850. Huxley, who was assistant sur- 
geon on the Rattlesnake, devoted himself with marked 
success to the study of the more interesting marine in- 
vertebrates. Several of the memoirs were sent home, 
others were worked up and published after his return. 
One of them, dealing with the structure of medusae 
(1849), will always have a peculiar interest, in that it 
contains a suggestion which lies at the base of the 
modern germ-layer theory. 

In 1852, Huxley appears in the role of public lectur- 
4 



176 University Magazine 

er, giving" a "Friday Evening - Discourse" at the Royal 
Institution on "Animal Individuality." Six other 
"Discourses" are here printed, dealing with such topics 
as the"Structure and Function of Nerves,'' the "Com- 
mon Plan of Animal Forms" etc. 

Several papers lie in the field of vertebrate histology. 
One of them "On the Enamel and Dentine of the 
Teeth," of a controversial character, is excellent 
reading, Huxley displaying - the same scathing wit, and 
incidentally, familiarity with apt biblical quotations, 
which later discomfited so many of his antagrmists. 

The volume closes with the author's Croonian lect- 
ure before the Royal Society "On the Theory of the 
Vertebrate Skull" (1858), in which he combats with 
complete success the view that the skull, like the sa- 
crum for instance, is only a modified portion of the 
backbone, consisting of several vertebrae fused tog-eth- 
er. This idea, that the skull is composed of vertebrae, 
has a certain attractive plausibility, and since the time 
of its promulgator, the poet Goethe, had not lacked con- 
fident supporters. Among such at this time was the 
eminent anatomist Richard Owen, with whom Huxley, 
now a famous naturalist himself though only thirty- 
three, was brought into what proved a bitter contro- 
versy. 



Prisoners oe Hope: Mary Johnston; Hough- 
ton, Mieeein & Co., Boston, 1898. 

The scene of this story is laid in the colony of Vir- 
ginia, at a time when Charles II was at Whitehall ; 



Book Notices 177 

when his jovial lieutenant, /Villiam Berkeley, and his 
attendant train of gentlemen, could be seen riding - at 
the "planter's pace" visiting' his friends; when gentle- 
men wore wigs and swords and gay ly colored doublets; 
when ladies wore ruffs and powders and laces; when 
gentlemen sat at their wine, long after the ladies had 
retired ; when cock-fights, dicing, and duelling were 
the chief pastimes; when the planter was an absolute 
monarch on his own estate, and the lady of the manor 
was a princess indeed. 

Godfrey Landless, a soldier of Cromwell, and a man 
of good birth, has, through the machinations of an ene- 
my, been unjustty convicted of a crime of which he was 
innocent, and has been transported, and sold in the col- 
ony of Virginia as a slave on the estate of Col. Richard 
Verney, a wealthy planter. He falls desperately in 
love with the Colonel's daughter, Patricia, whose hand 
is being sought by her cousin, Sir Charles Carew, her 
father's favorite. 

Godfrey learns of a night attack to be made by some 
of the discontented slaves and Indians, and warns his 
master; Landless fights gallantly as one of the defen- 
ders; just as all is about to be lost, help comes: how- 
ever Patricia is missed, having been carried off by the 
Indians. All set out to trace her up; being - misled by 
false information, they proceed up the Panumky. 
Landless is left behind, at the mouth of the river. Be- 
ing led by a friendly Indian he strikes the right trail, 
recovers the girl, and brings her back safely. On the 
way he confesses his love to her, and she returns it, 
but she has promised to marr} T her cousin, Sir Charles, 
whom she does not really love. They become Priso- 
ner* of Hope, the hope of meeting hereafter. 



178 University Magazine 

As a novel this story is somewhat drawn-out; some 
of the situations are, to say the least, highly improba- 
ble; but as a picture of the life of early Virginia, it is 
far above the average; the description of the dinner- 
party of Governor Berkeley and the conference with 
the Indians is very realistic. 



Birds of Village and Field: A Bird Book 
for Beginners. By Florence A. Merriam, 12 
mo. Illustrated, Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & 
Co. Price $2.00. 

To her former interesting book, Birds through an 
Opera-Glass, Miss Merriam has added this attractive 
handbook on Our Common Birds. 

But little attention is given in this work to the 
strictly scientific classification of birds. An elaborate 
key is given, founded chiefly on the color of birds, af- 
ter which the species are treated in detail. Quotations 
are gnven freely from other writers. She insists quite 
strongly on the economic value of birds as the destroy- 
ers of insect pests. 

The test is profusely illustrated with cuts. Twen- 
ty-eight full paged plates adorn the work, while some 
of these are new many are taken from other publica- 
tions. In the appendix tables are given of the migra- 
tions, outline of field observations, and a list of books 
of reference. 

Especially for the beginner in Ornithological study 
the book is a valuable aid. 



Book Notices 179 

Beginners' Objective Arithmetic. On the 
Objective Method. E. McN. Carr, B. F. John- 
son Pub. Co. 

Mr. K. McN. Carr's book is written to supply the 
beginner with the simplest, easiest and quickest way 
to write and read numbers. As the title explains, the 
objective method is adopted, real objects not pictures 
of them being used. The four fundamental operations 
are clearly and thoroughly given and on the whole 
the book seems very well adapted for the purpose in 
hand. 



Exchanges. 



Wm. S. Bernard, Editor. 

Where are the January issues of our exchanges? 
Our table is still groaning- under the weight of gay and 
festive "holiday numbers." Is it that so much energy 
was expended representing the chromatic scale in 
cover and vig-nette that there has been a consequent 
loss of vitality, a resultant delinquency in January? 
We have been waiting and, expecting, but the printers 
are after us now. 

It is good to be imbued with patriotism, nor would 
we debar those who wish, from giving all praise to 
whom praise is due, nor do we think it improper that 
our brave volunteers should receive due notice and 
honor from their Alma Mater, but we venture to hope 
that our literary magazines will leave such tribute to 
the fraternity periodicals and the lesser college pub- 
lications. Let us not rush into such fad. Already the 
brass-button romances have multiplied ad nauseam. 

Truly this is a day of academe and sweet girl grad- 
uate, and if the shade of Tennyson's Princess be 
permitted to view T mundane affairs, she might well sigh 
that her hig-h venture was not cast in this new chivalry 
of a later century. For pure literary composition 
the female Seminaries are no whit behind their 
brother institutions. Yet still true to their gos- 
sippy selves, they are loath to give up the the dainties 



Exchanges 181 

of small talk, the puerility of gushing - hero worship, 
the mawkish doting on favorite authors and grasp the 
the broad dignity of original thought, of vigorous men- 
tal effort. 

e.g\ Can the Editors of the College Message find no subject of inspi- 
ration outside the realm of fly-leaf biography? Are they afraid to 
launch upon the editorial sea? The whole pudding- of the January 
issue is insipid and flat, lacks the flavor of original effort. The 
three contributions to the literary department are mere abstracts of 
an hour's reading- of veiw accessible literature. And they are about 
the whole magazine. We are ignorant of the difficulties that may 
beset the editing of the Magazine and tentatively suggest the plati- 
tude, that crude originality is better than spiceless itnitation, how- 
ever well the lines may be drawn. If our G. F. C. editors would 
give the proper bent to individual effort, there is no question that 
there would be worthy response to their demand. 

It is gratifying to see that the ex-man of the Trinity Archive is 
falling- into our way of thinking in respect of the duties and obliga- 
tions of the exhange editor — viz, that there should be a maximum 
of criticism of individual effort, a minimum of g-eneral form. The 
general high standard of the Archive is full}' recognized by the ex- 
change fraternity and needs no encomium from us. The January 
issue with one exception, is no whit behind its predecessors. The 
contribution entitled "The Spanish-American War," stands like a 
blot on its pages, marring its dignity and degrading its high pur- 
poses. The article in question is a mock burlesque of the Hispano- 
American War purporting to come from the pen of 'a patriotic 
Spaniard. It is a travesty of humor and reeks with all the vile 
wit, so called jokes at the expense of all that is Spanish, with which 
the penny-a-liner flooded the pages of the yellow journals and other 
less decent papers during the war. The writer has a wonder- 
ful memory for such garbage- static energy which were better doing 
legitimate work. We presume that this contribution escaped the eye 
of the magazine's censor. The magazine is doing a good work in 
its effort to smooth the wrinkles of prejudice and exploit the truth 
in regard to a much vilified official of other days. 

We would call the attention ©f readers and especially our student 
body to the State NormalMagazine, and in particular to the Decem- 
ber issue. It is worthy of our sisters, daughters of our common 
mother, the Old North State. There rings through its pages a 



182 University Magazine 

patriotism, a love of home, a pride in state, and a no less love of the 
South of the past and present wide, the contributions "Uncle Remus 
and his Son" and "An Allegory." The first is a thoughtful and 
well writen contrast between the negro of fo'-de-war times and the 
negro of to-day. Miss Gwyn is looking into the past and present 
with an earnest gaze, and the quick glance she throws into the future 
is thus the keener. Hers is not the furtive, uneducated eye of the 
sofa dreamer. But it is not our province to preach of the coming 
womanhood of the Old North State and their part in its renais- 
sance, however so disposed we may be. The second article referred 
to above is an hundred word history of North Carolina from the 
birth of Virg-inia Dare to date, done in thinly veiled alleg-ory. To 
be appreciated and its moral absorbed it must be read. 

We often wonder what use and disposition the dapper and bebon- 
air Red and Blue makes of its score or more of Editors. At least 
they bravely fill one formidable page, and perhaps its racy gait is 
rather exhaustive and requires relays. Truly it sparkles and flashes, 
and in its pages we find perhaps more of the spice, dash, cheek and 
other typical qualities of the American student than in any other 
college monthly. Is that its ideal? However, in our judgment 
"The New Year" in the January number is good poetry, and that 
can be said of few such attempts. It is an imitation of Milton's 
UAlegro and attains likeness not only in rythm and verse, but in 
spirit and diction. 

We would like to ask the Mnemosyneun if the title page was torn 
off the magazine from, which "The Song of the Pine-Tree" was 
taken. 

The following Magazines have been received: — 

The Peabody Record, The Polytechnic, Wofford College, Journal, 
The Criterion,' The Haverfordian, Niagara Index, Southwestern Pres- 
byterian University Journal ', The College of Charleston Magazine, The 
Chisel, State Normal Magazine. The Minnesota Magazine, The Athe- 
naeum, The Wellesley Magazine, The Guilford Collegian, Hendrix Col- 
lege Mirror, The Red and Blue, University Courant, The Integral, 
The College Athlete, The Philomathean. Monthly , The Stevens, Life. The 
Nazarene, The Buff and Blue, The Purdue Exponent, The Carolinian, 
Clemson College Chronicle, The Baylor Literary, Richmond College 
Messenger, The Furman Echo, The William Jewell Student, The Uni- 
versity of Virginia Magazine, Missouri State University Independent, 
Philomathean Monthly, The Clover Leaf, The Wake Forest Student, 
Hampden-Sidney Magazine, The Kalends. 



Alumni Notes. 



H. M. LONDON. H. B. HOLMES. 

John Andrews, ex-'97, is working - for the Southern Railway com- 
pany at Raleigh. 

Thos. A. Sharpe, '96, is superintendent of city schools at Darling- 
ton, S. C. 

"Fletch - ' Bailey, ex-97, is on the road travelling for Bailey Bros, 
tobacco manufacturers, Winston, N. C, 

Walter Murphy, '92, is a member of the Senate in the present Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

Geo. E Butler, '92, has been appointed to a position in the Reve- 
nue Service in this state. 

Rev. Louis H. Schubert, '9S-'96, is rector of a church at En- 
field. 

Rev. N. H. D. Wilson, A. B., '86, has been returned by the Metho- 
dist Conference to Chapel Hill for another year. 

Geo. S. Wills, '89, who was Instructor in English here 1894-'96, is 
Professor of English at East Maryland College. 

R. G. Shannonhouse, '96, is studying at the General Theological 
Seminary, New York. 

Frank Miller, ex-'98, has been chosen chemist to a large electro- 
aluminum plant situated near Lynchburg, Va. 

"Dick" Lewis, '98, has been elected to the position of stenograph- 
er in the Citizens National Bank at Raleigh. 

Clarence Mills Eure. 1878-'79, has recently moved to Greenville, 
N. C, for the purpose of practising law. 

J. G. McCormick, '98, delivered an address at a prominent meet- 
ing of teachers held at Monroe recently, entitled "A History of Fe- 
male Education in North Carolina." 



184 University Magazine 

L. I. Moore, Law '93, was sworn in as Solicitor of the third judicial 
district at Pitt count}' court, Jan. 9. 

J. B. Tripp, 1885-'87, formerly B. F. Johnson and Co's. represen- 
tative for the state of Texas, has opened a large book establish- 
ment in Philadelphia. 



The pride and gratification which the University feels over the 
success of her sons cannot be too often impressed upon them. It is 
the purpose of the editors of this department from time to time to 
take up different leading- towns in the State and show the promi- 
nent stand taken everywhere and in almost every walk of life by 
University Alumni. 

Below are given the names and present occupations of the Alum- 
ni of the University now residing in the city of Wilmington : 

William White Harriss, A. B., 1842, Insurance Agent. 

Thomas Cowan Mcllhenny, A. B., 1845, Retired merchant. 

Theodore Bryan Kingsbury, 1847 — '48, Editor Wilmington Mes- 
senger. 

Oliver Pendleton Meares, A. B., 1848, ex-Judge of criminal court, 
Lawyer. 

William Walter Lane, A.B., 1852, Prominent practising physician. 

Walker Meares, A. B., 1853, Cotton Buyer, for Alex. Sprunt & Sons. 

William Lord de Rosset, 1850 — 52, Secretary and Treasurer of 
Navassa Guano Company. 

John D. Taylor, A. B., 1853. Clerk Superior court. 

Alfred Moore Waddell, 1850—53, Mayor of City of Wilmington. 

William James Love, A. B., 1855, Leading physician. 

Joseph C. Shepard, 1855 — '58, Prominent physician. 

Eugene Stuart Martin, A. B., 1860, Lawyer. * 

W. R. Kenan, 1860 — 61, Prominent Commission Merchant. 

Jas. Isaac Metts, 1860 — 61, Broker, 

John Cowan, 1859 — 60, Clerk to Board of Audit and Finance. 

Daniel L. Russell, 1860 — 61, Governor of North Carolina. 

James Alves Walker, A. B., 1858, Retired Merchant. 

Marsden Bellamy, 1858 — 61, Prominent Lawyer. 



Alumni Notes 185 

Joshua G. Wright, A. B., 1861, Real Estate Agent. , 
Win, J. Harriss Bellamy, 1860—63, a leading Physician. 
Octavius S. Wiggins, 1850 — >2, with Alex. Sprunt & Sons. 
John Taylor Rankin, 1862 — 63, Broker. 

Warren G. Elliott, 1864 — 65, President Atlantic Coast Line R. R. 
Companj'. 

George Gillett Thomas. 1864 — 66, Surgeon of the Atlantic Coast 
Line. 

William Augustus Wright, 1864 — 66, Truck Farmer. 

Chas. Coleman Covington, 1875 — 78, Wholesale Grocer. 

Duncan M. Williams, -1876— 78, Merchant. 

Alfred Moore Waddell, Jr., 1877—78, Secretary and Treasurer of 
Cotton Mill Company. 

Rev. Robert Strange, D. D., A. B., 1879, Rector of St James Epis- 
copal church. 

Frank Haywood Stedman, 1877—80, Insurance Agent. 

Chas. W. Worth, A. B., 1882, of the firm of Worth Co., Commis- 
sion Merchants. ■ 

Hardy Lucian Fennell, 1882 — 84, Mercantile Business. 

Herbert McClammy, 1883 — 85, Lawyer. 

Pierre Beauregard Manning, A. B., 1886, Eawyer. 

Aquila Jackson Marshall, 1886—87, Lawer. 

James Spencer Worth, 1888—90, of the firm of Worth Co., Com- 
mission Merchants. 

Hugh Lee Miller, '90, Chemist and Salesman for Navassa Guano 
Company. 

John D. Bellamy, Jr., A. B.. 1890, Rising young Lawyer. 

John D. Bellamy. Jr., Jr., 1892—93, Clerk in National Bank of 
Wilmington. 

Edward Payson Willard. '93, Manufacturer. 

Geo. Lewis Peschau, '93, Successful Lawyer. 

Clayton Giles, Jr., 1894—95, with Clyde Steamship Co. 

C. W. Yates, Jr., Class of '96, Book Dealer. 

Joseph Yates, '94, Banking Business. 



186 University Magazine 

MARRIAGES. 

Mr. George Knox Tate, ex-'98, was united in marriage to Miss 
Mabel Gray at Hillsboro, N. C, October 25, 1898. 

Mr.- Edward Clemmons McEachern. Med., '99, was married to 
Miss Leta Pickard at Florence, S. C, January 28, 1899. 

At Court Street Methodist church, Lynchburg - , Va., on January, 
25, 1899, Mr. Percy Moran Thompson, Law '97, was united in marri- 
age to Miss Julia Rison, daughter of Mrs. S. L. Bass. 

DEATHS. 

Kemp Battle Batchelor, matriculated from Raleigh 1887, M. D., 
University of Maryland 1889, died at his home in Baltimore, Dec. 
24, 1898. 

Hugh L. Cole, 1855-'56, Major C. S. A. on staff of President Davis, 
died in New York, where he was assistant corporation counsel 
Nov. 5, 1898. 

Wm. M. Brooks. A. B., 1860, died in Lincoln county, N. C.,Dec. 15, 
1898. 

Robert H. Winborne, A. B., 1847, died at his home in Chowan 
county Nov. 7, 1898. 

Henry Russell Shorter, A. B., 1853, Major inC. S. A., died Nov. 27, 
1898, at Eufaula, Ala. 

Wm. Ruffin Tucker, Ph. B., 1887, up to the time of his death Secre- 
tary and Treasurer of the Gray stone Granite and Contraction Co,, 
died at Raleigh Jan. 16, 1899. 

RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT. 

Dialectic Ham,, 
Jan. 29, 1899. 

In as much as it has pleased Almighty God to remove from us 
our beloved and esteemed member and alumnus, A. B. Gorrell of 
the class of '62 be it therefore 

/Resolved, That in his death the members of the Dialectic Society 



A lumni Notes 187 

mourn the loss of a faithful member and the University the loss of 
a true friend, and be it also resolved that we the members of the Di- 
alectic Society extend our deepest sympathj- to his bereaved family 
and friends; that a copy of these resolutions be made in the minutes 
book in memory of our fellow member and also that a copy of "the 
same be sent to the family of the deceased, to the University period- 
icals and to the Winston daily papers. 

P. M. Osborne j 
T. T Allison l Committee. 
C. A. Shore ) 

Philanthropic Hall, 

February, 4, 1899. 

Whereas, God in His divine wisdom and power has seen fit to re- 
move from time to eternity, our friend and fellow member, Thomas 
Capehart, therefore be it 

Resolved I, That while bowing- in humble submission to the will 
of Him, who hath power to give and to take away, we, the members 
of the Philanthropic Society connot but lament our bereavement. 

Resolved II, That we offer our sincere and heartfelt sympathy 
to the family and friends of the deceased, and while we would not 
intrude upon the sanctity of domestic grief, we would point them to 
that Higher Source from which alone the crushed heart can derive 
consolation. 

Resolved III, That these resolutions be placed upon the minute 
book of our Society, that a copy of the same be sent to the bereaved 
family, and also that a copy be sent to the University Magazine 
and Tar Heel with a request to publish them. 



A. J. Barwick 

N. £}. Ward \ Committee. 

G. V. Cowper 



I 



College Record. 

P. M. OSBORNE. AEONZO E. CATES. 

The town of Chapel Hill is to have a city charter. 

Dr. Alderman lectured in Durham on 23rd of January. 

Hon. W. J. Nichols, '97, Representative from Pitt County, was on 
the Hill recently, visiting - Mr. Barwick. 

A number of the students went to Raleigh recently to hear Sou- 
sa's great band. 

Prof. Noble appeared before the educational committee of the 
Legislature in the interest of education. 

J. A. Caldwell, '99, left recently for Plymouth, where he will en- 
gage in work with the State Botanist, Mr. W. W. Ashe. 

Mr. George G. Stevens was on the Hill not long since. 

Mr. Paul R. McFadyen, '94 — 95, has entered the Med. class. 

The University Record for January contains very valuable statis- 
tics on the University in public service. 

Twenty-four new students have entered since January 1st. The 
total enrollment for this year is 487, which is approximately the 
same as that of last year at this time. 

Prof. Holmes, State Geologist, has spent considerable time in 
Raleigh since the legislature convened, directing the framing- of 
road legislation for the different counties. Prof. Holmes has giv- 
en considerable time to the subject of road building, and is consid- 
ered one of the best authorities on the subject. 

On the evenings of January 25th and 27th the students of the 
University had the pleasure of listening to two most interesting 
lectures by Prof. J. Howard Gore, of Columbian University. The 
first was on "Holland'6 War with the Sea," and the second was 
from the personal experience of Prof. Gore within the Arctic circle, 
after having spent several months there. 



College Record 189 

The subject selected for the Annual debate is, Resolved, That the 
U. S. annex Cuba, provided the inhabitants seek annexation. 
Messrs. Greenfield and Cates of the Di. represent the affirmative ; 
Messrs. Lane and Parker of the Phi.. the negative. 

Mr. R. D. W. Connor having- resigned as Editor-in-chief of the 
Tar Heel. Mr. M. Bellamy was elected by the board of editors to 
succeed him. Mr. D. P. Parker was elected to fill the place left 
vacant by Mr. Bellamy. 

The Chapel Hill Choral Society will give its first concert of the 
season in Gerrard Hall on Friday night. February 10th, 1899. The 
society is under the leadership of Prof. Harrington and is composed 
of the best local talent in the College and in the village. Mr. J. A 
C. Dauer and Miss Fva Lawson have also been engaged for the 
evening. 

Dr. Hume attended the Baptist state convention in Greenville. 
After delivering an address there on "The True Spirit in the Inves- 
tigation of Church History" he went to Goldsboro and addressed 
the Graded Schools on "Radical Issues in the Study of Shake- 
speare. 1 ' 

In December Prof. Cobb delivered a lecture before the Salem High 
School in Sampson county. President Alderman has been invited 
to deliver the Commencement address there. 

New periodicals added to the library list for 1899 are the College 
Athlete, Independent, New York Journal, Outlook, Spectator (Lon- 
don weekly.) 

Mr. H. P. Harding has resigned as Washington's Birthday orator 
and Mr. Wm. S. Bernard has been elected to succeed him. 

The election of ball managers for commencement was held Janu- 
ary 21st. Mr. J. D. Grimes, '99, was elected chief without opposi- 
tion. The sub managers are Messrs. G. B. Newby, Julius Caldwell 
I. F. Harris, Emmet Kornegay, R. G. Davis and F. N. Joyner. 

The S. A. F. Fraternity lodge is now being completed. It is on 
the lot adjoining the D. K. E. lot. It has a large and roomy assem- 
bly hall and a neat little reception room. 

At a meeting of the Athletic Association held on January 14th it 
was decided that athletic relations with the University of Virginia 



190 University Mag~a2ine 

should be discontinued. The committee appointed for that purpose 
drew up the following- resolution, voicing the action of the Associ- 
ation: 

"Under existing circumstances the Athletic Association of the 
University of North Carolina severs all athletic relations with the 
University of Virginia. This action is brought about by the action 
of the latter at Richmond last Thanksgiving day, and because they 
have subsequently ignored all proposals for an agreement govern- 
ing future athletic relations between the two Universities." 

(Signed) J. S. CARR, Jr., Chairman, 
S. E. Shuh, 
W. S. Wilson, 
E. V. Patterson, 
C. S. Alston, 
R. A. Winston, 
W. L,. KXuttz, 

Authorized committee. 
The committee is now considering the advisability of entering 
the S. I. A. A. 

Mr. S. E. Shull, left tackle of the teams of '97 and '98 has been elect- 
ed captain for the team of 1899. 

Mr. J. D. Grimes has been appointed floor manager for the Febru- 
ary german given by the University German Club on February 
3rd. 

During the Christmas holidays the University Dramatic Club, 
presenting the two plays, "The Little Rebel" and "Evening 
Dress" gave performances at the towns of Tarboro, Wilson, Golds- 
boro and Wilmington. The trip as a whole was successful in every 
respect and was thoroughly enjoyed by the members of the club. 

The representative speakers for Commencement have been elected 
from the Societies. Messrs. Berkley, Coffey and Allison will repres- 
ent the Di; Messrs. Barwick, Parker and Ward, the Phi. 

At a meeting of the Junior Class held Saturday 21st, Mr. J. A. 
Moore, of Littleton, N. C, was elected Chief Marshall for Com- 
mencement 1899. He has appointed the following subs: Messrs. T. 
A. Cheatham, G. Chadbourne, T. W. Jones, Jr., W. E. Hearn, J. E. 
Gant, and E. E. Neville. 




HON. JOHN MANNING, L.L.D. 



North Carolina University Magazine. 

Old series, vol.- xxix. no, 4-— march, 1899. New series, vol xvi. 



HON. JOHN MANNING, hL.B. 



There was universal grief in Chapel Hill, when 
the news spread on the morning of the 13th of Febru- 
ary that Dr. Manning had suddenly died at 9 o'clock of 
the night before in the midst of the great snow storm. 
He had been confined to his room for some days from 
bronchitis, and it was hoped that he would soon resume 
his duties. To relieve an attack of coughing - , so that 
he might sleep in comfort, a soporific was g-iven him by 
his son, Dr. Isaac Manning, a most skillful physician. 
He rose from his chair to go to his bed, staggered and 
fell on it — dead/ 

The death of this most estimable man is a public ca- 
lamity. I am sure that the readers of the Magazine) 
will be glad to have a short account of his career. 

The name, Manning, is evidently English. About 
the beginning" of the 19th century, the ancestors of 
Dr. Manning settled near Norfolk in Virginia on land 
1 



192 U?iiversity Magazine 

called the Manning- Manor plantation. His grandfath- 
er, Joseph, a Captain in the War of 1812. emi- 
grated thence to Currituck county, and then to EMen- 
ton, where he became a merchant. Three of his sons 
attained to honorable positions: Thomas C. became 
Chief Justice of Iyouisiana;William H., State Represen- 
tative from Gates; and John, Dr. Manning's father, ob- 
taining, by the influence of James Iredell. Governor 
and United States Senator, an appointment in the 
United States nav}- , rose therein to the rank of Capt- 
ain and had the same position in the Confederate service. 

Dr. Manning's mother was a member of one of the 
oldest families of Chowan. Tamar Leary. She had 
two sons, whose training, as her husband was often 
absent from home on long cruises, was peculiarly un- 
der her care, John, the subject-of this sketch, and Jo- 
seph Alonzo, whograduated at this University in 1852, 
and settling as a physician in Virginia, died in early 
manhood in 18b0, leaving two sons and a daughter. 

John Manning's earliest years were spent in Edenton, 
the first capital of the State, always noted for its ex- 
cellent society. The school he attended had high rep- 
utation, the old EMenton Academv, then under the 
management of Mr. Charles Disbrow. His parents re- 
moved to Norfolk and entered him in the Norfolk Mili- 
tary Academy, which was famous for its excellence, 
Prof. Hopkins, once of the United States Military A- 
cademy being principal, and John V. Strange, a rela- 
tive of Judge Robert Strang-e of North Carolina, being 
assistant. His progress in his studies and his faithful- 
ness and skill in his military duties, gained for him in 



Hon. John Manning-, LL.D, 193 

his senior year the honorable post of Captain of Cadets. 
This experience and the social advantages enjoyed in 
Norfolk, were factors in imparting- to him the pecu- 
liarly easy and graceful manners, for which he was dis- 
tinguished throughout his life. 

He entered the Sophomore class in the University of 
North Carolina in 184-7. Among" other able class- 
mates were George B. Anderson, a general in the Con- 
federate service, William H. Johnston of Tarboro, a 
lawyer of great ability, Washington C. Kerr, a Pro- 
fessor in Davidson College and State Geologist, and 
Thomas Settle, a Judge in the Supreme Court of this 
State, Minister to Peru, and Judge of the District 
Court of the United States. He took high rank in his 
class, was one of the best debaters in the Philanthrop- 
ic Society, and of such excellence in delivery, that he 
was appointed by the Faculty one of the Sophomore 
Declaimers at the Commencement of 1848. No prizes 
were given in those days, but the audience awarded 
him the honor of unstinted praise. He had too an un- 
commonly melodious bass voice, and when the ICpisco- 
pil church was opened for divine worship he assisted in 
forming the first student choir known in the history of 
the University. They had no instrument other than a 
tuning fork in the hands of the leader, Richard H. Whit- 
field, of Mississippi, but with Manning's sonorous bass, 
and the exquisite soprano of Miss Mary Green, daughter 
of Rev. Professor Green, afterwards Bishop of Missis- 
sippi, together with other male and female voices, their 
singing was of universally acknowledged excellence. 
Young Manning although spending considerable 



194 University Magazine 

time, in the social circles, of which he was one of the 
chief ornaments, did not neglect his studies. He grad- 
uated near the top of the class and, as was the rule at 
that day, was in consequence allowed, indeed required, 
to deliver an original speech at Commencement. He 
showed the bent of his mind by handling- well the sub- 
ject, "The Influence of Religion on Law." 

Before selecting his profession he made a voyage 
with his father as Captain, partly for amusement and 
instruction, partly to satisfy himself whether a career 
in the navy would be agreeable as a life work. His 
vessel was the U. S. brig Bainbridge, ordered to cruise 
along the coast of South America. He visited Rio Ja- 
neiro, Montevido, and Buenos Ayres, having access on 
account of his relationship to the Captain, to the best 
circles of those cities. He thoroughly enjoyed the trip, 
but, as a mode of life, seafaring was so distasteful, that 
when the Bainbridge received orders to repair to the 
coast of Africa to aid in suppressing the slave trade, 
with the approval of his father, he returned to Nor- 
folk on the national vessel, St. Louis. 

He now determined to be a lawyer and to settle 
in Norfolk. His cousin, John H. Haughton, a man of 
learning aud large practise, living in Pittsboro, N. C, 
invited him to read law in his office. The acceptance 
of the invitation led to a complete change in his plans, 
to a home in a country village intead of a seaport city. 

In 1852 he procured his County Court license and, af- 
ter the year's interval required bylaw, liberty to prac- 
tise in the Superior and Supreme Courts. With him ap- 
peared before the Judges the late Judge Fowle, Col- 



Hon. John Manning; LL.D. 195 

Ed. Graham Haywood, Col. Devane, myself and oth- 
ers. Probably I am the last survivor of that law 
class. 

Mr, Haughton, being- often in politics, and also en- 
gaged in planting- cotton, and being impressed with the 
industry and ability of his pupil, offered him a part- 
nership, which was accepted. Soon afterwards the 
Senior removed his residence to his plantation in Cra- 
ven County and the large business of the firm fell on 
the shoulders of the Junior. The dangers of what 
Coke called prepropera praxis was borne lightly, com- 
petition with a strong and experienced bar was coura- 
geously met, and soon the aspiring young lawyer drew 
to himself a still larger clientage. Only a strong con- 
stitution could have stood without injury the fatigue 
and exposure of attendance on the Supreme and Fede- 
ral courts at Raleigh, the Superior and County courts 
of Chatham, Moore, and Harnett, with journeys in 
special cases into Cumberland and Randolph, these lo- 
calities only to be reached by travel over roads in win- 
ter well nigh impassible, and at all times unpleasant. 

Manning was a scrupulously honest and fair lawyer. 
To his clients he was frank, always disclosing the 
weak points of their cases and dissuading from litiga- 
tion wherever he deemed it unadvisable. To his oppo- 
nents he was courteous uniformly, never indulging in 
harsh epithets or distorting their arguments. Especi- 
ally he refrained from badgering witnesses endeavoring 
to tell the truth, while he was terrible to perjurers. 
He studied his cases well, both the law and the facts, 
was always ready for trial and made a strong impres- 



196 University Magazine 

sion on court and jury by clear and forcible language, 
enunciated with a voice peculiarly sonorous and pleas- 
ing - , accompanied by excellent grace of delivery. In 
his defense of criminals he had extraordinary success, 
his sympathetic interest in the case urging him t© the 
most effective eloquence, the eloquence of earnestness. 
It was this sympathetic temperament that induced 
him, while not blaming law}^ers who thought differ- 
ently, to decline appearing with the Solicitors of the 
State in prosecuting those accused of capital offences. 
He feared that they might possibly be innocent. 

The young, overworked law}^er, an "old-line Whig" 
in politics, was often solicited to be a candidate for a 
seat in the General Assembly. This he firmly declin- 
ed, thinking that his first duty was t© his clients. 
However when civil strife was threatened he used his 
influence wherever practicable, in public and private, 
to avert war and save the Union. He told the people 
earnestly and frankly that the first gun fired would be 
the death-knell of slavery. 

When war began and volunteers were called for by 
the State he enlisted in the first company raised 
in the county, the Chatham Rifles. He was soon made 
first lieutenant, and, on account of his training as boy- 
Captain of the Norfolk Academy Cadets, was quickly 
promoted to be adjutant of his regiment, the 15th Vol- 
unteers. His army experience was short. He spent 
the summer of 1861 in the encampment at Yorktown 
under General Daniel H. Hill, and was then appointed 
by Judge Asa Biggs, of the Confederate States Dis- 
trict Court, Receiver under the Sequestration Acts. 



Hon. John Manning-, LL.D. 197 

Before accepting - the position he consulted the Com- 
pany with which he volunteered, and assured the sol- 
diers that he would not leave the regiment without 
their consent, which was unanimously given. He held 
this very responsible office until the war ended, collect- 
ing- and accounting - for hundreds of thousands of dol- 
lars. 

Notwithstanding - his entrance into the military ser- 
vice as a volunteer, he was elected by a large majority 
a delegate to the Secession Convention of 1861. In 
common with all other members of the Constitutional 
Union part}?- into which the Whig - party was merged, 
he was forced to admit that many northern communi- 
ties were opposed to carding - out the compacts of the 
constitution in regard to slavery, but he contended 
that secession from the Union was neither a legal right 
nor expedient. If however the United States govern- 
ment should proceed to coerce the seceding States by 
force of arms, a union so obtained would not be that 
designed by our forefathers. He therefore with the 
universal approval of his constituents pledged himself 
to resi t forcible coercion. When the convention met, 
Mr. Badger offered an ordinance, modelled on the Dec- 
laration of Independence of 1776, and based on the 
Right of Revolution. Mr. Burton Craige offered a 
substitute, framed on the principle of the legal right 
of Secession. In common with Badger, Graham, Gil- 
mer and other leaders of his party Dr. Manning sup- 
ported the former as against the latter. 

He similarly supported the ordinance of Chief Jus- 
tice Ruffin, dissolving- the bonds connecting North Car- 



198 University Magazine 

oliua with the Union, but not repealing-, as the Craige 
ordinance purported to do, the ordinance passed by the 
Convention of 1789 accepting- the federal constitution. 
When the Secession substitute was preferred by the 
majority, all the members had their votes recorded for 
it, and subsequently affixed their signatures to the en- 
rolled copy. Dr. Manning's conservatism was like- 
wise shocked by the haste with which the majority 
without due consideration, insisted on adopting the 
Provisional and then the Permanent Constitution of 
the Confederate States and ineffectually endeavored to 
have them submitted to a vote of the people. Having 
thus recorded his views on the constitutional principles 
underlying the questions mentioned, he proceeded to 
give a loyal support to all measures designed to fur- 
ther a vigorous prosecution of the war. 

After the disastrous ending of the conflict he turned 
industriously and with no repining heart to the prac- 
tise of his profession. Its routine was broken into in 
1870 by an excursion into the "field of politics. In that 
year the member of Congress from his district, John 
T. Deweese resigned, under a threat of expulsion for 
selling" an appointment to West Point. Manning - was 
nominated by the Democratic Convention as his suc- 
cessor. His opponent was a son of Governor Holden, 
Joseph W. Holden. 

It was necessary to overcome a majority of one thou- 
sand. This was done with 350 votes to spare. While 
in Congress he was one of the most popular and influ- 
ential of the Southern members. He vig-orously op- 
posed all measures especially directed against the 



Hon. John Manning, LL.D. 199 

Southern States. He made a strong - speech against 
the old Force Bill, which set aside safeguards of liber- 
ty under the plea of suppression of the Ku Klux Klan. 
This speech was so able that it was circulated by 
his party in the Northern and Western States as a 
campaign document. 

Disdaining to enter into the distasteful business of 
manipulating primaries he failed to receive the nomin- 
ation b\' the next District Convention, a disastrous 
party mistake as the Democratic candidate was badly 
defeated. 

The next public position held by him was a member- 
ship in the Constitutional Convention of 1875, which 
was called to change features in the constitution adop- 
ted in 1868 not suitable to North Carolina conditions. 
His labors extended his reputation as a sagacious and 
prudent statesman and lawyer. 

In 1874 in pursuance of an amendment to the Consti- 
tution the election of Trustees of the University was 
taken from the Board of Education and given to the 
General Assembly. Dr. Manning was chosen as one 
of them and was an active officer for twenty years. 
He participated in all the measures leading to the re- 
vival of the institution and opening of its doors in 
1875. 

Finding in 1881 that his Alma Mater was distressed 
for want of funds he waived his scruples against leav- 
ing" his law office and consented to become a candidate 
for a seat in the State House of Representatives with 
the avowed intention to labor for her relief. At the 
request of President Battle he introduced a bill appro- 



200 University Magazine 

priating $5000 annually to the institution, the first an- 
nuity it ever received from the State. By the active 
labors and eloquent speeches of himself and others the 
bill berame a law. 

The degree of Doctor of Laws conferred on him bv 
the University in 1883 was not only a tribute to his 
learning - , but a recognition of his valuable services in 
her behalf. 

At the same session, with Wm. T. Dortch and John 
S. Henderson, he . was selected to codify the public 
statutes, which had been greatly changed since Bat- 
tle's Revisal. The result of their intelligent labors is 
the "Code of North Carolina," adopted by the Gener- 
al Assembly of 1883, which to a marked degree has 
met with public favor. 

About this time Governor Jarvis tendered to him a 
position on the Superior Court bench, and afterwards 
that of Secretary of State, but he declined both of- 
fices. 

In 1881, without his knowledge, the Board of Trus- 
tees of the University unanimously elected him to the 
vacancy in the professorship of law, caused by the 
death of ex-Judge Wm. H. Battle in 1879. President 
Battle amid his multifarious duties for two years had 
kept the school from dying but of course it was lan- 
guishing - . It required faith and pluck of a high order 
for Dr. Manning to remove his large family to Chapel 
Hill, with n© salary promised, with reliance only on 
fees from his students and emoluments from his pro- 
fession necessarily diminished by the incessant de- 
mands of the new duties. His brilliant success show- 



Hon. John Manning', LL.D. 201 

ed that the venture was not rash. Beginning with a 
class of seven he had under his instruction in 1897-'98 
eighty seven students. This really wonderful result 
was secured by faithful teaching, lucid lecturing, 
kindly sympathy with the needs of young- men, insist- 
ing . on much work, and by searching examina- 
tions. 

A volume of his Law Lectures was in course of pub- 
lication at the time of his death. 

In his family relations he has been singularly 
blessed. On the fifth of June, 1856, he had the good 
fortune to marr\ T a lady of Pittsboro, in every way 
suited to him, in talents and character, in religious re- 
lations, in social position, in temperament and tastes, 
Miss Louise J., daughter of a physician of wide repu- 
tation, Dr. Isaac Hall, and granddaughter of one of 
the first three judges of our Supreme Court on its cre- 
ation in 1818, John Hall. Their union has been most 
happy. They have raised eight children to maturity, 
all of them with characters and social influence that 
show careful and judicious training at home; Dr. John 
Moore Manning, a physician of Durham, James Smith 
Manning, a lawyer of the same place, Dr. Isaac Hall 
Manning - , a ph} 7 sician of Wilmington, Miss Mary 
Southerland Manning, Mrs. Sally Charleton, wife of 
Dr. F. P. Venable, Mrs. Eliza H., wife of Wm. Weldon 
Huske, of Fayetteville, Mrs, Tamar H., wife of Rev. 
Gaston Battle, of EMg-ecombe, and Mrs. Louise H,, wife 
of Prof. Wm. R. Webb of Bellbuckle, Tennessee. 
With fourteen grandchildren, in the forty three years 
of their married life they have lost only one out of 
their family, Mrs. Tamar Battle. 



202 University Magazine 

Dr. Manning's departure was unexpected but he 
was by no means unprepared. From boyhood he had 
lived in the fear of God, an humble, trusting", undoubt- 
ing, faithful follower of the Savior. His piety was 
undisturbed by speculations of science, by the research- 
es of learned orientalists, by the carpings of "higher 
criticism." The teachings of Christ were his settled 
beliefs. An old-fashioned Christian, sincere, truthful, 
benevolent and beneficent, he walked as in God's sight 
and the Heavenly Chariot found him ready for the up- 
ward journey. 

He had been an active member of the church of his 
forefathers, the Protestant Episcopal, and had held all 
its offices ©pen to laymen, including a seat in the Gen- 
eral Convention. Often as lay-reader supplying the 
minister's place, his rendering of the service was pe- 
culiarly devout and impressive. 

He was exceedingly beloved and respected in the 
community. He had the genial, graceful, attractive 
manners of the old-school gentleman. With decided, 
independent views on all questions he was frank in ex- 
pressing, but courteous to those of a different opinion. 
In his public and private career his speech was ever 
free from bitterness, and he refrained from imputing 
bad motives to his opponents. In the broadest sense 
of the word he was charitable — in thought, in speech 
and in conduct, in sound advice to the perplexed, in 
consoling words to the afflicted, in bounteous gifts to 
the needy. One of the last letters he received was 
from one, now prosperous, whom he had helped by his 
endorsement to secure a University education, an- 
nouncing the full payment of the loan. 



Hon. John Manning-, LL.D. 203 

The loss to his students seems to them irreparable. 
He had extraordinary power of lucid statement with 
pleasing - voice and manner. He was thorough even ex- 
acting - , but his patience never flagged, his readiness to 
stimulate and encourage was never wearied. His na- 
ture was so sympathetic and his bearing and words so 
kindly, that his pupils while admiring- his learning - , 
loved him as a father. His hold on their hearts is 
boundless and beautiful. 

The University has lost a learned and loyal son, 
and the students a wise counsellor and kindly friend. 

Kemp P. Battle, '49. 



TYPES IN CHEVY CHASE AND KING 
HENRY THE FOURTH. 



The early history of England is in a large measure 
the history of her great baronial families. Prominent 
among- these stands the noble house of Percy. 
Two adventurers of this name crossed the channel 
with William the Conqueror and shared his fortune. 
To reward them for their valuable services William 
bestowed upon them large tracts of land in the con- 
quered territory, and thus they became the founders of 
the house in the British Isles. Little versed in the art 
of diplomacy, for generations they were prominent a- 
mong- the nation's warriors, so that at the time of 
Edward III. we find them at the head of a great feu- 
dal army. 

At the coronation of Richard II. one, Henry Percy was 
made Earl of Northumberland the largest and most 
important earldom in Northern England. Taking ad- 
vantage of their power and influence the Percies 
deposed Richard II. and placed on the throne their friend 
and ally, Henry Bolinbroke. 

Those familiar with English history are well versed 
in that long and bloody warfare waged between the 
English and their Scottish neighbors. Naturally the 
border counties suffered greatly from these mutual in- 
vasions. So great was the danger andso fierce was the 
conflict, that each king found it advisable to entrust 
these counties to the rule of one powerful subject, in 



Types in Chevy Chase and King Henry IV. • 205 

whom was vested almost kingdy powers. The English 
king - found the rig-lit man in Lord Percy; while the 
Scottish ruler entrusted the welfare of his border to 
the equally noble and powerful family, the Lords of 
Douglas. 

A most intense rivalry, heated by both personal and 
national feeling-s, naturally existed between these repre- 
sentative characters. Their deeds of prowess, a 
favorite theme among- their fellow countrymen, soon 
found their way into the national song-s and ballads. 
Famous among them and one with which we are all 
familiar, is the celebrated ballad of Chevy Chase, 
which represents the Percy making- a vow to hunt,« in 
defiance of the law, for three days within the borders 
of Doug-las without condescending- to request the lat- 
ter's permission. The Doug-las of course resents this 
bold insult and sallies forth to repel the invaders. 

It was a day in which personal bravery out-weig-hed 
strateg-y in war-fare and of course the leaders were ex- 
pected to excel all others in skill and courag-e. The 
interest then centers about the two leaders. They are 
fair representatives of the ag-e of chivalry — an ag-e 
which fostered above all thing's knig-htty deeds and 
thoug-hts. They are bold, impulsive, and attentive to 
the minutest points of honor. Frankness and generos- 
ity are virtues ever present in their make-up. Those 
qualities for which they strive themselves, are the 
ones they most admire when seen in their rivals. 
Thus m the very midst of his fierce encounter with 
the Percy, Doug-las, flushed with excitement, cries 
out in admiration, 



206 University Magazine 

"Holde, the, Percy, 

And i' faith I shall the bryngfe 

Where thowe shalt have a yerlis wag-es 

Of Jamy our Scottish kyngfe. 

Thowe shalt have thy ransorae fre, 

I promise the hear this thyngr, 

For the manfullyest man yet are thowe, 

That ever I conqueryd in hide fightyngfe. " 

"Nay, then, "sayd the Lord Perse, 

I told it the beforne 

That I would never yeldyd be 

To no man of a woman born." 

Now when Douglas, shot from the rear, lies dying - , 
'tis time for Percy to show his gfenerosity. Taking - the 
hand of his mortally wounded enemy, he laments his 
death, in these words, 

"Wo ys me for the! 

To have saved thy lyffe I would have pertyed 
with 

My land for years thre. 

For a better man of hart nare of hand, 

Was not in all the north country." 

From this popular ballad Shakespeare received the 
hint for his more famous delineation of Percy in the 
Hotspur of King- Henry the Fourth. Neither in the 
ballad nor the chronicle does Shakespeare find 
more than the mere names and suggestions of the char- 
acters of these men. Douglas is now a subordinate 
character, represented as a fellow-conspirator with 
Percy ag - ainst their common foe, Henry IV. He is 
over-shadowed and thrust aside by the stronger per- 



Types in Chevy Chase and King- Henry IV. 207 

sonality of his aforetime enemy and new ally. Not 
that Douglas was a weaker or less attractive character 
than Percy. But Shakespeare was writing an English 
play for Englishmen and of course lays stress on his 
English hero. He does Douglas no injustice. 

But in Hotspur, Shakespeare saw a type of a large 
class of his countrymen and threw himself almost pas- 
sionately into the delineation of his character. From 
the mere suggestions found in the ballad he builds 
the full man. He overlooks nothing - . Every humor, 
whim and habit is enlarg-ed upon with great force and 
vividness. We can almost see him moving - before us 
with his frowning brow, stammering - from sheer im- 
patience of natural restraints to speech, passionate and 
bending all to his terrible will. Scene 3, of Act II. g"ives 
us a vivid picture of this impulsive and masterly char- 
acter. He enters reading - a letter " The purpose you 
undertake is dangerous.' 1 '' "Why that's certain, 'tis 
dang-eroi .s to take a cold, to sleep, to drink; but I tell 
you, my lord fool out of this nettle, dang-er, 
we pluck this flower, safety. " "The Jr lends you name 
uncertain and your zuhole plot too light for the counter- 
poise of so great an opposition" Sa}^ you so, say you 
so? I say unto you ag-ain, you are a shallow cowardly 
hind, and you lie. What lack-a-brain is this? By the 
Lord our plot is a good plot as ever was laid, our friends 
true and constant: a good plot, g~ood friends and full 
of expectation, an excellent plot, very good friends. 
What a frosty spirited rog"ue is this." 

But this impatience of detail and proper restraint, 
hurries him on to his fatal enterprise, in which the 
2 



208 University Magazine 

good plot and good friends even to his own father, 
fail him, and he is crushed. 

And Hotspur is not all fault. He is what his quon- 
dam enemy, Douglas, calls him, "the king of honor." 
It is his very life and is the most noticeable of his char- 
acteristics. It is brought out the more forcibly be- 
cause of the manner in which Shakespeare contrives on 
all occasions to throw into contrast with him young 
Prince Hal, who seems utterly devoid of this admirable 
quality. Thus King Henry is made to cry out in envy 
"that my Lord Northumberland 
Should be father to so blest a son, 
A son who is the theme of honour's tongue," 
And, laments that some "night-tripping fairy had 
not exchanged, 

"In cradle-clothes our children where they lay, 
And called mine Percy, his Plantagenet." 
And so it would seem that Shakespeare deliberately 
planned to show Hotspur the better 'man of the two. 
He is serious, cultured, and ambitious, Hal detests 
seriousness, loves lowbred companions and disregards 
his opportunities. Hotspur loves honour: Hal seems in- 
different to it. 

But this does not seem to be as it ought, and so we 
are led to ask, "Is Hal indeed degenerate? has not 
Shakespeare some purose in so portraying him?" 

When King Henry is hard pressed on all sides by 
his foes, the most powerful lords of the kingdom, he 
makes an appeal to his son to lay aside his indifference 
and come to his aid in the impending struggle. His 
kingdom hangs by a straw and troubled at the seeming 



Types in Chevy Chase and King- Henry IV % 209 

degeneracy of his heir he loses patience and accuses Hal 
of being- base enough, 

"To fight against me under Percy's pay, 
To dog his heels and curtsey at his frown, 
To show how much thou art degenerate. " 
Against these terrible accusations, Hal's true nature 
rebels and he defends himself with manly vigor. 
"Do not think so, you will not find it so. 
And God forgive them that so much have sway'd 
Your majesty's good thoughts awa} r from me! 
I will redeem all this on Percy's head, 
And in the closing of some glorious day 
Be bold to tell you that I am your son. 
Percy is but my factor, good 'my lord, 
To engross up glorious deeds on my behalf: 
And I will call him to so strict account, 
That he shall render every glory up, 
Or I will tear the reckoning from his heart. 
This in the name of God, I promise here: 
And I will die a hundred thousand deaths 
Kre break the smallest parcel of this vow." 

We know well how he kept this vow and overthrew 
with his own hands the great Percy. We have here 
then to suggest Shakespeare's purpose. The fact that 
he unhistorically represents Hotspur as of the same age 
with Hal and confounds the Doulgas of Chevy Chase 
with the Douglas of the Percy conspiracy-not the 
same historically-shows that it was not the individual 
but a type that he was sketching. Percy and Douglas, 
were the representatives of the decaying feudalism— 



210 University Mag-azine 

feudalism in its last days, never so proud, so haughty 
or so tyrannical as in its fall. Of this system Harry 
Percy is' the type. In this one character we see cen- 
tered all its virtues and vices. He was a brave and 
skillful soldier in personal combat, but he did not pos- 
sess the qualities essential for leadership in times when 
strategy and discipline were beginning" to assert their 
superiority over mere individual effort. 

Against this type, in sharp contrast to it, Shakes- 
peare has set another in the person of Prince Hal, the em- 
bodiment of anew force, the rising power of the people 
which was just taking form for that long struggle 
with the nobility, for mastery. Who could better repre- 
sent this new power than the young prince who as king 
would be the representative of the people, whom Shak- 
espeare makes him study in tavern, army and street as 
well as at cour : :? For Hal has seen that the nobles 
who had elevated his father to the throne, may some 
da} 7 desire his fall. Seeing then the approaching 
contest he prepares the way to throw himself on the 
those whom he sees must be his only support in the fight. 
He cultivates the society of his people, so as to know 
how to appreciate them when the inevitable storm be- 
tween king and nobles shall burst forth in its fury. 
Hal's motives are at first misunderstood and Shakes- 
peare probably so intended them to be that in the recoil 
of feeling his conquest of public sentiment might seem 
the greater. 

As a study of the gradual development of gen- 
uine simplicity of feeling into royal leadership we 
must read this play throughout and reflect upon it to 



Types in Chevy Chase and King- Henry IV. 211 

give full credit to the psychological method underlying - 
the dramatic treatment. 

Shakespeare borrowed what he chose from ballad and 
romance, ran a risk of exciting" the prejudice of some of 
his readers by his subordinate treatment of Dougdas 
and misrepresented history in portraying - Hotspur ir 
order to g"ive a true view of his Prince Hal. 

R. D. W. Connor, '99. 



THE UNIVERSITY AND THE PUBLIC 
SCHOOL SYSTEM OF NORTH CAROLINA, 



PART I. 

"The supremest need of the State is an adequate system of com- 
mon schools. All the forces of the University shall work to that 
end." — The University Record. 

The cry is often raised by good men of our State 
that such institutions for higfher education as our 
University should not be supported nor aided by the 
taxation of the people. ' 'For, ' ' these men say, ' 'as only a 
few can attend such colleges why should the State be 
taxed for the benefit of a few persons who are really 
in less need of help than any one else? Would it not 
be much better to give the same amount of money for 
the support of ferty or fifty high schools and in this 
way do the greatest good to the greatest number?" 

On first thought such questions mean much and we 
are puzzled to find an answer. But let us think 
again. Does a river take its rise in the plains? Do 
not the greatest and strongest streams flow down from 
the highest hills and mountains? Our institutions for 
higher education are the mountain spring's perennially 
feeding the streams of education and enlightenment 
which make fertile the barren deserts and plains of 
ignorance and vice. 

So we say that the right theory is that a University 
should be supported, and this will in time develop a 



The University and Public Schools 213 

system of common schools such as could never exist 
were it not for a hig-h center of education. But why 
theorize? Let us examine the facts of the case 
and see what are the reasons which support such a 
theory; what historical facts there are to persuade us 
to adopt such a view. After seeing - what the Univer- 
sity has done for public education in North Carolina no 
fair minded man will say that the education of the masses 
has suffered on account of funds given to this institu- 
tion instead of being" given to common schools. 

In 1776 North Carolina made a constitutional pre- 
vision both for the common and for the higfher educa- 
tion of her citizens in the following" words: "That a 
school or schools shall be established by legislature for 
the convenient instruction of the youth, with such 
salaries to the masters, paid bv the public, as may en- 
able them to instruct at low prices: and all useful 
learning' shall be duly encouraged in one or more 
universities." 

"The above theme is the foundation of the public 
school system; but such was the financial condition of 
the State in the early years of its history that half a 
centuiw elapsed before the fair promise of the Consti- 
tution was realized, even in a measure, in so far as it 
related to common schools. The University which 
was chartered in 1789 and began its work of instruc- 
tion in 1795, was doubtless instrumental in educating - a 
public sentiment to the importance of a State system 
of schools."* 



*From "History of Education in N. C." by Charles Lee Smith, 
Fellow in History and Politics, Johns Hopkins University. 



214 University Magazine 

In conformity with the last sentence o£ the foregoing" 
quotation we find that nothing- @f importance was done 
for the cause of common schools by the public author- 
ities until 1815, when William Miller of Warren 
County, a member of the class of 1802 of the State 
^University, was elected Governor. During- this year he 
sent a message to the General Assembly in which he 
called attention to the need of public schools. 

Some of Gov. Miller's predecessors had made some 
efforts in this direction, but lacking- in determination 
and full realization of the importance of the matter 
their efforts were without avail. 

Gov. Miller's first messag-e was also treated with 
some indifference. A committee was appointed to look 
into the matter, but no action was taken. But still 
hopeful and believing- "that under the fostering- hand of 
legislative patronage alone can the temple of know- 
ledge and science be thrown open to all, "Gov. Miller 
again took up this important subject in his message of 
Nov. 20, 1816. This time he was more successful and 
the committee to which the matter was referred made 
an encouraging report. 

It is held by some of our historians that there was 
one report in answer to this message dated Dec. 17,1816, 
and signed by John M. Walker. Now the House 
Journal gives John W. Walker as a member of the 
House of Commons from Warren County but makes no 
mention of any other Walker in that Legislature. Nor 
do the journals of the Legislature make mention of 
such a report. 

But whether there was or was not such a report 



The University and Public Schools 215 

does not concern us here. "What we wish to look into 
is the report in the Senate Journal of Dec. 16, 1816. 

Here again we see an alumnus of the University 
taking up the cause of public education. Archibald 
DeBow Murphy was chairman of the committe and 
author of the report. 

The work of Murphy was so important in advancing - 
the interests of common schools that he won for him- 
self the title of "Father of the common schools of 
North Carolina." 

Before taking - up the work of Judg-e Murphy let us 
note a few of the leading - facts in the life of this great 
man.* 

Archibald DeBow Murphy, son of Col. Archibald 
Murph} 7 , was born in Caswell County in 1777. He 
was prepared for the University in the academy of Rev. 
David Caldwell in Guilford County. He graduated 
from the University in 1799 and being - chosen professor 
of ancient languages served in that capacity for three 
years. In the mean time he studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1802. In 1818 he was elected 
Judg-e of the Superior Court. From 1812 until this 
time he had served continuously in the State Senate 
and in this capacity his greatest usefulness to the 
State appears. 

Governor Wrn. A. Graham spoke of his reports and 
other writing's as "the noblest monuments of philosoph- 
ic statesmanship to be found in our public archives since 
the days of the Revolution." 



*See Life of Murphy by Gov. Graham in N. C. University Maga- 
zine of Aug-ust, 1860. 



216 University Magazine 

Judge Murphy was interested not only in the inter- 
nal development of his State but also in its history, and 
on December 5th. 1825, he submitted to the legislature 
the plan on which he proposed to write a history of 
North Carolina. Literary men in other States, like 
Jefferson and Madison, gave him the use of their fam- 
ily archives, and many themselves furnished reminis- 
cences, but in his own State he did not receive the sup- 
port that he deserved and so after finishing" a few 
chapters of his history about the Indians of North 
Carolina he was forced to give up his attempts on ac- 
count of ill health. Wrecked in health and fortune he 
died February 3rd, 1832. 

But let us turn back and examine his report in an- 
swer to Governor Miller's messeg'e about public 
schools. He opens his report with a statement in re- 
gard to the condition of the people of North Carolina 
since the Revolution. He reported that everyone felt 
satisfied as to the excellence of the system of govern- 
ment adopted by the people of the State; that this 
form of government is bottomed upon the virtue and 
intelligence of its citizens; that it is knowledge alone 
that lights up the path of correct action; that to effect 
this benevolent purpose a judicious system of public 
education must be established, which will serve the 
people at large in a way that the Dniversit}', already 
established, can not. 

Besides recommending that this system be endowed 
by the State he also recommended that such poor boys 
as gave proof of genius and hopes of future usefulness 
should be transferred to schools of higher grade and 



The University and the Public Schools 217 

eventually brought forward into active life under pub- 
lic patronage. 

Judge Murphy thought that the State would soon be 
able to appropriate nearly half a million dollars for the 
purpose and in consideration of this he offered the res- 
olution that the speakers of the two Houses of the Gen- 
eral Assembly appoint three persons to draft a system 
of public instruction, founded upon the general princi- 
ples of the report just mentioned, and to submit the 
same to the consideration of the next General Assem- 
bly. The committee was appointed, and as already 
said, Judge Murphy himself was made chairman. 

After making a careful study of the school system 
of New England, and after visiting Europe to examine 
the continental systems, he made a report which mark- 
ed the beginning of a new educational era in North Car- 
olina; and' this was the basis of the common school 
system of the State until the end of the Civil war. 
In drafting this system he followed closely the gener- 
al principals of his first report. 

"This new report recommended the formation of a 
fund for public instruction, and the constitution of a 
board to manage the fund and to carry into execution the 
plan of public instruction contemplated. This plan was 
one which was meant 'to make the progress of edu- 
cation natural and easy,' beginning with primary 
schools, in which the first rudiments of learning were 
to be taught and proceeding to academies, in which 
the youth were to be instructed in languages, ancient 
and modern history, mathematics and other branches 
of science preparatory to entering the University, in 



218 University Magazine 

which instruction should be given in all the higher 
branches of the sciences and the principles of the use- 
ful arts." 

An institution for the deaf and dumb was also in- 
cluded in the plan. 

"For the elementary instruction to be given it was 
proposed to divide each county in the State into two 
or more townships and to have one or more primary 
schools established in each township. For secondary 
training this board was to divide the State into ten ac- 
ademic districts and have an academy erected in each 
district. The State was to meet one third of the ex- 
pense of the erection and the site, and was also to fur- 
nish one third of the sum required for the salaries of 
the teachers, on the condition of their instructing a 
certain number of poor children free of charge. As 
to the superior instruction which was meant to crown 
the whole, the Legislature was urged to sustain the 
University which was at that time suffering greatly 
from lack of funds. For knitting the whole together 
the board of public instruction came to be constituted, 
which was to consist of the Governor of the State, as 
president, and six directors, to be appointed by the 
General Assembly. -In addition to the general man- 
agement of the academies and schools this board was 
to have power to provide some just mode of advancing 
from the primary schools to the academies, and from 
the academies to the University, as many of the most 
meritorious children educated at public expense as the 
proceeds of the funds for public instruction should suf- 
fice to maintain and educate." 



The University and the Public Schools 219 

In urging that the State should "maintain" as well 
as educate the children of the poor, the commit- 
tee had urged something- which was quite beyond 
the means of a State yet sparsely settled and with the 
burdens of a recent war still weighing - on the people. 
The bill met with favor from the Legislature, but the 
consideration of the larg-e sums it would annually re- 
quire to carry out its liberal provisions induced a 
pause and that pause proved fatal to it. 

Instead of eliminating - from it the one especially im- 
practicable feature and trying - to w@rk out the practi- 
cable ones, its advocates desired and urged its passage 
as a whole and so friends fell from it and it failed. 

But Judge Murphy had done a great work and it 
now remains to be seen what another University man, 
Bartlett Yancey (class 1804) had to do with providing 
the necessary financial aid for carrying out the best 
part of Judge Murphy's excellent plan. 

F. M. Osborne, '99. 



IN FACE OF THK FOE. 



He had no intention of stirring - up strife. He made 
the remark merely to fill a gap in the conversation and 
it had never occurred to him that anyone would dispute 
the statement. He had been reared from childhood to 
accept it without thought. He had said: "My father 
fought in the civil war under Stonewall Jackson. He 
was a good soldier, worth five Yankees. Any southern- 
er was for that matter." 

The remark was addressed to a group of officers 
seeking' protection under the shade of a tall tree from 
the hot Cuban sun. 

He was perfectly innocent in his assertion — this thin 
fair-skinned young Southerner. It was like the burst- 
ing of a Spanish shell when the tall dark Northerner 
fiercely repliei, "That's a lie!" 

Lieutenant Blow was too astonished at first to real- 
ize fully what had been said. Then it dawned upon 
him that he had been insulted. His hand sought his 
revolver. The other drew his. 

But friends soon interposed. "For shame young 
men," cried Major Wood, "Haven't we enough to occu- 
py our attention without stirring up strife among our- 
selves? Vent your anger on those Spaniards. 1 ' 

A long column of Spanish infantry was moving un- 
der the cover of a dense thicket. "We will soon have 
need of your pistols there, my young friends," said 
the gallant Colonel Stark. "See there now," he ex- 
claimed. 



In Face of the Foe 221 

As he spoke, a puff of white smoke came from the 
bushes protecting - the Spanish soldiers. An irregular 
voile} 7 quickly followed before the echo of the first shot 
had quite died away. 

Then came the order, quick and sharp. 

"To your commands!" cried Col. Stark. 

A fierce glance passed between the two lieutenants 
as they moved to their places with their respective 
companies. Major Wood cried out to them as they 
parted, "Now for a proof, mv young fire-eaters." 

They understood. 

I/ieutenant Blow was a Southerner, in a southern 
company. Lieutenant Hancock was a Northerner, in 
a northern company. They were going into a charge 
side by side. It was to be a trial of Blow's boast. 

The firing from the Spaniards had become rapid. 
Occasionally a soldier fell. The Americans grew im- 
patient. 

Between them and their enemy was a long stretch of 
entangled vines and briars, tall grasses, and deep 
ditches. Difficult marching even without the singing 
of the Spanish bullets. 

"Charge!" 

They sprang forward eager to be the first to meet 
the foe. "Come on boys! Drive them out!" cried Blow, 
dashing through the thick bushes, waving his pistol, 
"After 'em!" 

"Steady fellows! Take it easy,'' shouted Hancock 
calmly, "They are firing too high." 

But the firing was fierce; the sun was hot; the bush- 
es thick. The men scattered. They were pressing 



222 University Magazine 

gallantly forward, stopping- only to fire, and firing - with 
deadly effect. Blow dashed forward. He saw before 
him a Spanish color-bearer cheering- on the foe. There 
was a prize. Now he was entangled in the briars: 
now he fell in a ditch; up; down. His face was scratch- 
ed; his handsome new uniform torn almost to shreds. 
But he pressed onward, the bullets whistling - close to 
his head. Men fell all around him. 'Their comrades 
pressed on with shouts. 'Twas close quarters, 'twas 
hot! 

But Blow was ahead leading - the charge. 

Bang - ! to his left. 

"Oh!" he cried. His left arm dropped to his side use- 
less. He was faint, thirsty, but he dashed on, firing* 
right into his enemy's faces. Again came the sharp 
pain. This time in the leg - , and he fell. He was far 
ahead of the others, but they were pressing- on. The 
bullets were screeching- throug'h the air. The savage 
yells of friends and foes ming-led and made the scene 
hideous. 

Suddenly above the roar of the g-uns a great shout 
was heard far away to his rig-ht. He tried to raise his 
head above the tall grass to see, but he was weak. He 
knew it meant victory. For friend, or foe? He knew 
not. Then came the sound of a mig-hty rush. 'Twas 
the retreat. The enemy were breaking-. He lay in the 
line of their march, and in a few minutes they would 
be rushing- over him. It meant death, and he shud- 
dered. Gathering- all his remaining- streng-th he made 
a final effort to g-et out of the line of retreat. He stag*- 
gered. There was a depressing- dizziness and buzzing 
n hi s head and he fell heavily forward. 



In Face of the Foe 223 

But his effort was not useless. He had been seen as 
he rose above the tall grass. 

It was Lieutenant Hancock. He saw at once the 
gallant Southerner's danger. It was almost inevita- 
ble, the Spaniards were so close upon him. He sprang 
forward and tore through the bushes. Now down, now 
up, he pressed desperately forward in the face of the 
wildly retreating enemy. They were almost upon 
him and his tall form dashing through the bushes was 
a target for a hundred marksmen. Bullets whizzed in 
close proximity to his head. He was almost there. 
He could see Blow now and thought him dead. Surely 
they would both be trampled to jelly. Ten yards 
ahead was a Spanish officer, revolver in hand. He 
fired. Hancock stag-gered — recovered — and pressed on. 
A rib was broken. Now he leaned forward to snatch 
Blow's body from under the feet of the oncoming foe. 
He raised it to his shoulders expecting to be borne 
down at any minute before the retreating - horde. But 
help was at hand. Some of his men had seen his dan- 
ger and followed him. Then they dashed at the en- 
em} 7 and a kand to hand struggle ensued. 

But now the Americans, victorious along the entire 
line, were pressing forward driving the enemy before 
them. They came rushing on, hundreds of mad, yel- 
ling demons, tasting battle for the first time and thrill- 
ed with excitement. 'Twere simple madness to at- 
tempt to resist the terrific onset, and the Spaniards 
gave way at every point and lied for their lives. 

Hancock's senseless body lay across Blow's. They 
3 



224 University Magazine 

were picked up and carried away on the shoulders of 
two strong - soldiers. 

"That was a close shave, old fellow," said Blow af- 
terwards, as he and Hancock walked arm in arm down 
the streets of Santiago. X. 



THE DISPENSARY SYSTEM. 



There are two forms of the Dispensary system, now 
in this country, which claim our notice — one that of 
the State, as it mig-"ht be called, where the State has 
entire control of the liquor traffic, the other that of the 
county which as a part of the State acts according* to 
the demands of its voters, we will not say inhabitants, 
with the consent of said State. Both forms are in line 
with methods for some time prevalent in North West- 
ern Europe, but very new and fresh in America: tho' it 
is now quite five years since South Carolina launched 
out into the liquor business, presenting- to sister States 
the rather incongruous spectacle of a State prohibiting- 
its citizens from trafficing in a commodity which had 
been declared detrimental to the g-ood habit.-- and mor- 
als of themselves by a majority of said citizens, and 
g-oing" into the condemned business herself for the sake 
of revenue. It is true that revenue was for a hig-h and 
noble purpose. All the profits accruing - from the busi- 
ness, and it was calculated to be a most successful one, 
were to swell the school fund of the State and to reduce 
other taxes: it was to be apportioned out among- the 
counties of the state, the county selling- the most liquor 
getting the most money and hence the best schools if 
money makes the best, a fact which we believe is now 
universally conceded. But with all this worthy inten- 
tion the law was most obnoxious to a larg-e class of cit- 



226 University Magazine- 

izens; to outsiders it was a very radical experiment in 
State socialism. To the Prohibitionists in the State 
there was something- about an imaginary fish and real 
stone which seemed extremely apropos: the State had 
been carried by them in the previous election. But all 
this has become ancient history. What we wish to 
know is, how is this Dispensary sj^stem working - to- 
day; is it for the g'ood of the State: and many other 
thing.- which cannot be solved by an account of its be- 
ginning. 

All agree that if the law could be enforced it would 
be a fine thing; unfortunately, it has always found it- 
self in contrariety with the constitutionality of things. 
Before the law went into effect the State's Attorney 
General gave as his opinion that the law was not a 
violation of the Constitution, yet in nine days after it 
had gone into operation Judge Hudson, of the Circuit 
Court decided that it was anything but constitutional. 
A nine day's wonder, forsooth. The halt called by 
Judge Hudson proved to be a most serious interference 
to the mac hi ne ry of the law, and he was a big" frog" in 
his own puddle, as the saying is, until his decision was 
reversed by the State Supreme Court and his official 
head cut off by the next legislature. From then on 
the history of the dispensary has been one of enormous 
litigation, with the State on the one side and the united 
efforts of liquor dealers from New York to California 
on the other. 

Because of an injunction granted by Judge Simonton 
in the spring of 1894, a respite from dispensary rule 
was granted for ten days and sporadic bar-rooms were 



The Dispensary System 227 

in evidence at every available spot. Only once since 
then has there been sold any whiskey in the State ex- 
cept by the State, this time because of another decision 
of the same judge in the case of the Vandercock Wine 
Co. that any original package ot whiskey or any corn- 
modi t} 7 if sold in the original package could not be 
opened ©r seized by the State. This gave rise to the 
"O. P." stores where all beverages from beer to cham- 
pagne were sold in the original package having been 
shipped into the State in the same way. These "O. 
P." stores have died the death of the unpatronized and 
again the thirsty South Carolinian can only allay the 
predominant feeling by "that dispensary stuff." And 
unless a mighty change takes place in the political 
family of the State the aforesaid South Carolinian will 
continue to mix his own drinks in the same old way. 

Nor is the law an objectionable one in a general sense: 
its title is certainly in its favor, being — "An act to pro- 
vide for the Ejection of a State Board of Control, and 
to Further Regulate the Sale, Use, Consumption, 
Transportation, and Disposition of Intoxicating Liquors 
or Liquids in the State and Prescribe Further Penalties 
for Violations of the Dispensary Laws, and to Police 
the Same." 

These last words, "and to Police the Same, " have 
caused the awful red stain on the not otherwise, how- 
ever, snowy escutcheon of the Palmetto State pointed 
to with horror by her sister States. The murders re- 
sulting from the attempt to "Police the Same" have 
been many; but those who know will not lay the blame 
to the letter of the law, rather it is because of the char- 



228 University Magazine 

acter of the men wh@ were selected to fill the necessary 
parts in the engine of execution. It has furnished on 
a smaller, but more detestable scale another example 
of the evils of the spoils system. The men employed 
by the State as constables to enforce the law, squelch 
blind-tig*ers and check the toper, have as a rule been 
men of little understanding - , pig-headed men, men. who 
drank themselves into a state of still denser imbecility, 
if possible, while it was their duty to suppress the 
whole business, and "clothed with a little brief author- 
ity cut such capers before hi^h Heaven as made the 
angels weep." The law will ever prove an octopus- 
like destroyer of human life as long as its enforcement 
is left in the hands of fools and rascals. 

Section I. of the law, says that the keeping, use or 
sale of alcoholic or brewed liquors or compounds or 
mixtures "thereof by whatever name called or known, 
which contain alcohol and is used as a beverage, except 
as is here-after provided, is hereby -prohibited under a 
penalty of not less than three nor more than twelve 
months, at hard labor in the State penitentiary, or pay a 
fine of not less than $100 nor more than $500, or both fine 
and imprisonment, at the discretion of the Court, for 
each offence." This sounds somewhat like absolute 
prohibition, but is far from it in its actual workings. 

However, the State is determined that its liquor shall 
be pure as is shown by the clause which says that no 
liquor shall be shipped into the State which has not 
been analyzed by the chemist of the South Carolina 
College, and has to have his certificate to that effect 
on the package. 



The Dispensary System 229 

Section II provides for the election by the General 
Assembly of a State Board of Control, consisting- of five 
members, whose business it shall be to carry out the 
provisions of the act. It is their business to appoint 
a commissioner every two years who shall purchase all 
liquors for lawful sale in the State. The appointment 
has to be confirmed by the Senate. They are to have 
a general oversight of the entire system. So much for 
the central dispensary, now for its ramifications. 
Wherever located the County dispensaries are exactly 
alike. They have a County Board of Control and this 
board appoints a commissioner to dispense all liquors 
used by the county. His legal name, by I;he way, is 
not commissioner but dispenser. The dispensaries are 
not forced on the counties. The establishment is 
always in the following manner: Upon petition signed 
by one fourth of the qualified voters of such county 
wishing a dispensary therein being filed with the 
County Supervisor, he orders an election, submitting - 
the question of dispensary or no dispensary to the 
qualified voters of the County, and if a majority of the 
ballots cast be found and declared for a dispensary, 
then a dispensary may be estalished in that county. 
A similar process, mutatis mutandis, is prescribed for 
towns and cities. ' 

The county dispenser is required to take a solemn 
oath that he will not sell to minors nor habitual drunk- 
ards, nor any one already intoxicated. This most 
excellent feature of the law is sometimes evaded by old 
topers and the hot-blooded youth who can always find 
the ever ready ''darkey" to swear for them. Such an 



230 University Magazine 

act entitles the person to a heavy penalty — if caught. 

So much loss has been incurred by the State through 
the embezzlements of county dispensers that Sections 
14 and 15 are entirely devoted to the control of such 
unfortunate occurrences. Hotels are allowed the priv- 
ilege of dispensing- liquors bought from the dispensary, 
by the bottle, either night or day by giving a bond @f 
$3,000 conditioned for all the rules prescribed and im- 
posed by the State Board of Control. 

The most dangerous feature of the law is set forth 
in Section 24, viz: the privilege of searching houses 
suspected of harboring contraband liquor: it has been 
the real cause of over half the murders which have re- 
sulted as a consequence of the constables' sometimes 
over zealous desire to carry out the law. Certainly as 
officers of the law they ought to enforce the law, but not 
forgetting that every man's home is his castle, and his 
rights should be duly respected. Much less abuse of 
the searching right has resulted from complaints of 
innocent citizens. 

Any package containing one gallon of liquor and 
marked "For Personal Use" may be shipped into the 
State provided the addressee is not implicated in 
any blind-tiger transactions m the opinion of the con- 
stables. Constables have the right to seize and open 
any suspicious package and if they find one containing 
whiskey and not marked as above, they seize it in the 
name of the State and ship it to the State dispensary. 
These are the most important features of the dispen- 
sary law of the State of South Carolina. It contains 
none of the unconstitutional features of the original 



The Dispensary System 231 

* 

act, and really seems to be working - to the satisfaction 
of most citizens. But we cannot consider the liquor 
question as settled there; it is very probable that the 
State will be in the hands of a strictly Prohibition ad- 
ministration next time. One of the most important 
legislators of the State said recently in a newspaper 
interview, "The dispensary system was never intended 
as an ultimatum. It was justified only as an expedi- 
ency and as a step towards Prohibition." The great 
objections to the law are the political machine at the 
Capital and the method of enforcing the law. It is 
hardly probable that the State will ever gx> back to re- 
tail license; all drinking - saloons are prohibited by the 
new constitution. If any change is made it will be to 
allow dispensaries in such counties as want them and 
enforce absolute prohibition in the rest. 

Dispensaries by counties is now being tried in this 
State and the outcome is watched for with great in- 
terest. 

H. Legare Watson, '99. 



North Carolina University Macazise, 



PUBLISHED SIX TIMES DURING THE COLLEGE YEAR BY 
THE DIALECTIC AND PHILANTHROPIC LITERARY SOCIETIES. 



Old series, vol. nil No. 4 march, 1899. m series, vol w. 

PRICE $1.50 PFR YEUR_ ^ - - - 25 GENTS PER COPY. 

Tflraes Board of I-fDcfLitax-ss. 

WILLIAM SIDNEY WILSON, '99, Editor-in-Chief, Di. 
Henry Mauger London, '99, Managing Editor, Di. 
William Stanley Bernard, '00, Phi. 
Claude Baker Denson, Jr., '99, Phi. 
Alonzo Enoch Cates, '00, Di. 
William Frank Bryan, '00, Phi. 
Francis Moore Osborne, '99, Di. 

WILLIAM EDWARD COX, '99, Business Manager, Phi. 

All literary communications should be addressed to the Editor- 
in-Chief. All business matters to the Business Manager. 
Entered at the Chapel Hill Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter. 



The Editor's Desk. 

Elsewhere in this issue of the Maga- 
Dr. John . , . 1t 

ZINE will be found an excellent sketch 
Manning. of the Hfe of thia g , reat and g . Qod m ^ 

together with a faithful likeness. No one was better 
able to write that sketch than Dr. Manning's life-long - 



The Editor s Desk 233 

friend and co-laborer, Dr. Battle, who knew so well the 
sterling - character and christian worth of his friend. 

In his death the State loses one of its best citizens, 
the University a professor, who by honest, pains-taking" 
work had made for himself a name and had won the 
love and admiration of those whom he taught, and the 
student body loses a kind and sympathizing- friend 
whose like it will be hard to find. Hi; was the christ- 
ian's life; an example worthy the imitation of all young- 
men. 

Truly a good man has g-one t© his reward. The 
Magazine) extends sympathy to the bereaved family 
and friends. 



Through the kindness of Col. Julian 
Carr Hall. S. Carr, of Durham, the University is 
soon to have another much needed 
dormitory building. In 1891, Col. Carr gave" the 
University $10,000, and a few days ago he added $5,000 
to this amount, making - $15,000 with which a handsome 
building- will be placed on the Campus, and will very 
appropriately be called "Carr Hall." 

No son of the University has shown greater interest 
in his alma mater than has Col. Carr. He has always 
been first and foremost to lend his assistance and to 
give liberally of his money to every cause which has 
been for the uplifting and advancement of the institution. 
And it is but fitting that this Hall should bear his 
name and perpetuate his memory in coming years. 



234 University Magazine 

„ _ The trustees have acted wisely in 

selecting Judge Shepherd to succeed to 

TJ *j* /v -jr £i ^ ic f\ ** 

the Professorship of Law made vacant 
by the death of Dr. Manning. Judge Shepherd is 
peculiarly fitted for this position both because of his 
legal ability and knowledge, having filled with honor 
positions on the Superior and Sujjreme Court benches, 
and because he has for a number of years been associ- 
ated with Dr. Manning in the management of the 
Summer Law School. He comes to us therefore not as 
a stranger, but as a friend whom we are glad to greet, 
and we feel sure that he will be as successful as a 
teacher as he has been as Judge and practitioner. 



Legislature The work of , this - raad . bod y of 
North Carolina's leading citizens has 

become a part of our history, and it is 
a chapter of which ever}' man should be proud. 

Setting aside all other laws, their work in behalf of 
public education will guarantee to them the gratitude 
of coming generations. Though the amount appropri- 
ated is comparatively small, it shows that our people 
from mountain to sea-shore are interested in this great 
question, and this is but the beginning of what will 
some day crystallize into a more perfectly arranged and 
more liberally endowed public school system which 
will be the pride of our State. The day is fast coming 
when there will no longer be heard this small talk 
* against appropriations for education, and when there 
will be provided an efficient system of public schools 
reaching from the kindergarten to the University. 



The Editor's Desk 235 

Georgia-Carolina "Carolina wins!" These were 
Debate. the thrilling- words which greeted 

the expectant and hopeful throng - of 'Varsity students 
early Saturday morning - , 18th inst. Ag-ain we have 
met our opponents, the Georg-ians, in mental combat, 
on their own grounds, and have g'ained a victory of 
which we are justly proud. Too much praise cannot 
be given our representatives, Messrs. Bowie and 
Broadhurst, who so nobly foug-ht to win laurels for 
their alma mater, and we feel that we voice the senti- 
ment of the Faculty and student body in saying - , we 
appreciate their work and are proud of their victory. 
As each of these rival Universities had been success- 
ful in one of the two previous debates, increased in- 
terest and enthusiasm was manifested in the result of 
the present one. The time is fast coming - , and rigfht- 
ly, too, we think, when our inter-colleg-iate debates 
will be considered of equal importance to our athletic 
contests. Let the g-ood work go on, and let us con- 
tinue to meet our friendly and g-entlemanly opponents, 
the Georg-ians. 



Book Notices. 



William Ewart Gladstone. By James Bryce. 

This is an incisive and weight} 7 book. It is judicial, 
as it is by the author of "The American Common- 
wealth." It is full of loving - reverence, as it is the es- 
timate of the intimate friend who found a hero in this 
seemingly contradictor}' and puzzling character. 

The Introduction suggests the method of showing 
the consistency and unit} 7 that reigned over his actions 
and opinions. It traces the early influences that shap- 
ed his nature and goes back of them to the Scotch an- 
cestry through whom earnestness and moral conviction 
were bred in the bone, and dialectics and theology 
came to be part of his very life. A member of the 
Church of England, a so-called high churchman, with 
marked individuality and fervor he often diverged, not 
from her doctrinal positions, but from her policy with 
reference to the State, to the dissenters and to educa- 
tion. He was the leading agent in disestablishment in 
Ireland and a supporter of disestablishment in Scot- 
land and in Wales. Yet his first notable religious ut- 
terance was in advocacy of the strongest possible bond 
between the State and Church. Mr. Bryce does jus- 
tice to the conscientiousness, the progressive spirit, 
and the independence which led him to make such rad- 
ical changes of theory and to the moral courage and 



Book Notices 237 

brilliant tactics which attempted to put his new views 
into practice. 

For sixty-three years in Parliament, he passed from 
high Toryism through a conservative "half-way house" 
to be the admired Liberal leader. Such vigor and 
alertness of body and mind, such receptive freshness 
and eagerness of spirit, from a noble young manhood 
to grave old age, are rarely seen. In so long a life he 
had time to observe, to read, to think, to act, and to 
revise his opinions, without being the juggling and 
insincere opportunist his aristocratic Tory enemies sup- 
posed him to be. 

Mr. Bryce shows that the majority could not follow 
his patient secret investigations and so suspected that 
he was trimming his sails while he was studying the 
relation of his theory to action and the duty and expe- 
diency of reforming the established order. 

Such power of debate, such eloquent statistics, such 
passion and such spiritual force, such self-mastery 
blended with keen sensibility, such pride with humili- 
ty, such dignity and such friendliness! In rapid search- 
ing- analysis he lets you into the secret of the man. 
He often lost influence over iritable friends and wily 
foes by being the statesman and the strategist who 
saw only great situations and ideals rather than the 
politician and the partisan who appealed to small pre- 
judices and low passions. Mr. Bryce thinks that his 
speeches will not last like Burke's and Webster's as 
literary classics, but that he was the resourceful thrill- 
ing master of the situation, the magnetic orator, as 
few have been, fire in his eyes, conviction and music 



238 University Magazine 

in his voice and whole bearing-. Yet our critic proves 
too that his power was not that of the rhetorician alone, 
but that he was a constructive original statesman and 
framer of laws and policies. He traces him through 
financial, ecclesiastical and electoral reforms, through 
the Home-Rule movements in which Gladstone weigh- 
ed every condition scrupulously and made his progress 
and his separation from the Liberal-Unionists on prin- 
ciple, throug-h the foreign policy which evoked the in- 
tense anger of the Jingoes and their arraignment of his 
"Pecksniffian" piety and presents all the breadth and 
depth of this great soul along with his knowledge of 
detail and his skill in making up budgets and draw- 
ing bills. 

Mr. Bryce has a discriminating chapter on the 
strength and weakness of Gladstone as an author. In 
Greek mythology and Homeric geography he will not 
do to follow so much as in his pictures of Greek polit- 
ical and social life. Our critic honors his subject, but 
he can see spots in the sun and he thinks that a wider 
study of the physical sciences and of modern philosoph- 
ical methods would have given him a better grasp of 
certain spiritual and ethical problems. He seemed 
sometimes to settle upon the ritual or sacramental side 
of religion as all-important. Yet he was in close politi- 
cal affiliation with non-conformists and though he gave 
up his early desire to be a clergyman, he preserved a 
purity, almost sanctity of spirit, which led many to 
feel "how awful goodness is." With all his inflexible 
devotion to principle he was forgiving to the sinful 
and the weak. A model ©f domestic piety and sweet- 



Book Notices 239 

ness, he was, with a few imperfections, great and high, 
as our author thinks, "the noblest Roman of them 
all." 

This is one of the satisfying" books in its style and its 
lucid and compact presentation of its subject. 



Lives of Distinguished North Carolinians; 
Edited by W. J. Peele, North Carolina Pub- 
lishing Society; Raleigh, 1898. 

This is a book written by North Carolinians, among 
them some of its most distinguished sons, about North 
Carolinians, and for North Carolinians. It is written 
for a purpose: the desire to stimulate pride in State, to 
set before us examples of lofty virtue and true great- 
ness to be patterned after and followed in our own 
humble way, and also to show to the world and espec- 
ially to ourselves, that North Carolina is not "a strip 
of land between two States," but has had men as great 
and as good as those of any country. 

We know New England's history better than we 
know that of our own State. Do we fully appreciate 
the fact that the "Mayflower incident" happened com- 
paratively late in the history of the colonies; that the 
very first colony was right here in North Carolina; that 
the first American-born white child was right here in 
North Carolina? Do we bear in mind that the battle 
of Guilford fought right here in North Carolina vir- 
tually decided the war for American Independence? 
No, too long we have been using New England text- 
4 



240 University Magazine 

books, histories of the South and of North Carolina 
written by northerners, which tell all about the Bos- 
ton Tea-party, aud nothing at all about the refusal of 
the people of Wilmington, N. C, even to the point of 
arms, to allow the British officer to land with the odious 
stamps, years before. And furthermore this resis- 
tance was made in the broad open day, by well known 
men, without disguise. Bunker Hill is everlastingly 
dinned into our ears, but when did a Northern histo- 
rian ever do full justice to King's Mountain? 

We are told that in 1861 the North took up arms to 
free the oppressed and much-abused negro; that they 
sent their armies down as missionaries. As a matter 
of fact, fifty per cent of these "missionaries" were for- 
eigners or foreign born, knowing nothing of our insti- 
tutions and caring still less. Thousands couldn't 
speak our language; many were imported simply for 
war purposes, English, Irish, Hessians, French, some 
from nearly every nation on earth; very, very few came 
to free the negro. De Tocqueviile in 1835 sa} r s, "No- 
where is the prejudice against the negro so intolerant, 
as in those States where servitude has never been 

known he cannot meet the white man upon fair 

terms either in life or in death." Abraham Lincoln in 
his inaugural address says, "I believe I have no lawful 
right to interfere with them(i. e. institutions of slavery^, 
and have no inclination to do so." Kight days before, 
Sumner had said "Congress has no right to interfere 
with slavery." The emancipation proclamation was 
simply a war measure; a mere something to glaze over 
the true cause. The causing cause of this war was 
discrimination and sectional taxation. 



Book Notices 241 

Let us be thankful that we are still one nation; that 
slavery has been done away with (for it crippled and 
almost ruined the South), and let us hope that we will 
always remain one nation, going - on to reach the high- 
est and best, but let us not allow the future genera- 
tions to believe an untruth. The world has long- re- 
spected the courage of the South, it must respect her 
cause. In the w T ords of Thomas H. Benton, "Let us 
write down our history as a profit to rising generations 
and extending the knowledge of the kind of men to 
whom we are indebted for our independence and for the 
form of government which they established for us." 

This book is a step in the right direction; the editor 
promises to bring out a second volume if properly sup- 
ported; by all means let us have it, we need it. 



History of the Spanish-American War, by 
Henry Watte-rson. 

The above is the title of a superbly illustrated, richly 
bound volume issued by the Werner Company, Akron, 
Ohio. It is the only authentic history of the Spanish- 
American War that has so far come to our notice. All 
the others have, in the main, been merely re-vamped 
histories of the Cuban War, with some illustrations 
and a few chapters about tho Spanish-American War. 
Of course, anything written by Henry Watterson 
would be readable. He, above all other men in 
America, is fitted by training and experience to write 
a history cf this war, which has brought world renown 
and glory to our arms. Every line of the book breathes 



242 * University • Magazine 

an enthusiastic spirit of patriotism that is exhilerating 
and inspiring - . 

The work contains over 650 pages, a large number 
of full-page half-tones, together with many rich 
double page illustrations in ten colors. It is sold by 
subscription, and will undoubtedly prove money to 
every intelligent salesman. 



Exchanges. 



Wm. Bernard Editor. 

Standing one day in good hearing" and seeing dis- 
tance of our deep-voiced Niagara, a companion, who 
has the habit of always noticing things, brought his 
vocal organs close to my ear and through the trumpet 
formed of his hands yelled, "Say, Bill, do you hear 
that noise the thing's making?" And now, even now 
amid the thunders of "imperialism" and "expansion," 
the student who in his college-monthly essays to set- 
tle his nation's policy must needs assail our ear with 
the preface: — "The subject which is to-day engaging 
the attention of the nation from the Great Ivakes to 
the Gulf, from the Atlantic to the Pacific is the thrill- 
ing question of Imperialism." 

A startling discovery, brothers, ye all be making at 
the same time. We have difficult} 7 in bestowing credit 
where credit is due. 

In respect of the discussions of the above absorbing 
topic much that has been said in the College maga- 
zines is good, both pro and con, but for the most part 
only a reproduction of the ideas advanced by able 
writers in our national periodicals, The Atlantic 
Monthly, Forum and others. There is nothing very 
blameworthy in this method of acquiring information, 
and reproducing that which has been made a part of 



244 University Magazine 

ones own thougfht. But only is this to be considered, 
that the majority of thougfhtful students are constant 
readers of the heavier magazines, and from past ex- 
perience of student-treatment (if I may use the phrase) 
of such topics, hastily turn the pages which contain 
your contribution in search of stuff that ring's 
truer. 

Even the well composed paper, "Expansion — The Policy for 
America," contributed to the Baylor Literary of January is but a 
reflex of a great northern monthly. Why not get a new point of 
view if write we must? 

Truly that was a deep draught of Edward Bellamy's own concoc- 
tion you swallowed, my friend of The Atlantis. Yon out Herod 
Herod. If you will true yourself down a little, we'll back you 
against Jules Verne. But in sooth a brilliant idea that of using the 
Great Sahara as a bulletin-board for flash-lights of the latest ball- 
game on the planet Neptune or some other. When the Great Atlan- 
tic Tunnel is laid, when a traveller leaving Europe in a closed car is 
blown into New York 3 hours before he starts, when the "sky-scra- 
pers" are 200 stories high (4000 ft.), when we can look into the back 
yards of the inhabitants of Saturn, when we shall have harnessed 
the tides of the ocean, then, then the world looking backward will re- 
gard you as a prophet, vide: — "Inventions of A. D. 2000," The At- 
lantis. 

On the 22nd February last, high carnival held among the fair ed- 
itors of The Kalends— Greek, Latin, French, Italian, good United 
States, English and U. S. Negro were levied upon for subject mat- 
ter and form to express the warm emotions the day is supposed to 
inspire in the male bosom. Odes, Epodes. Sonnets, and Strophe, 
after Soppho, Horace, Petrarch, Hay ne and Sambo pour fourth the 
pains, and hopes and prayers of Cupid-wounded hearts. Here's the 
Nigs': 

I ain' so ve'y hain'some, and I ain' so ve'y good, 

And the f ac' is I'm mos'ly mighty po', 
And they say there ain' no reason why on yearth I eveh should 

Come a-bangin' an' a-knockin' at yo' do'. 



Exchanges 245 

But, honey, I has seen you lookin' at me wif yo' eyes 

Kinder smile}', tell I done made up my min' 

'At I'll hide away my razor, and I'll toe up to the line, 

'At I wo'n' steal no mo' chickens 'cept the little lonesome kin'; 

'At I'll go on up to Sbiloh, an' I'll tell 'em 'at Vlljine, 

If you'll say you wanteh be my Valentine. 

Melissa Hill, /goo. 



Thou hast not loved, young" heart; 

So naught of pain 
Hast known, not felt the dart, 

That ruthless, vain, 
Thy fondest dreams of happiness hath slain. 

Thou hast not loved? I envy thee 

The perfect sway 
Thou hast o'er joy; for thou art free 

To have thy way 
And laugh at love and lovers all the day. 

Thou hast not loved? I pity thee 

For all of this; 
The pain of love is joy to me. 

I know the bliss 
The warm ecstatic sweetness of her kiss. 

Georgetown College Journal. 



Alumni Notes. 



H. M. LONDON. W. F. BRYAN. 

P. T. Cheek, ex- '98, is teaching- at Ellerbe. N. C. 

R. S. Busbee, '98, is in the general offices of the Southern Rail- 
way at Washington, D. C. 

J. A. Jones, '92, is Principal of Roanoke Institute, Weldon, N. C. 

R. A. Nunn, ex- '99. is practicing- law at Newbern, N. C. 

T. H. Battle, '80, has recently been elected Manag-er of the Rocky 
Mount Cotton Mills. 

H. A. L. Latham, '85, is shipping clerk of The Tate Springs in 
Tennessee. 

Geo. G. Stevens, '96, has associated himself with the Piedmont 
Industrial and Real Estate Agency at Charlotte under the firm name 
of Abbott and Stevens. 

Jas. J. Slade, '52, Capt. C. S. A. and ex-mayor of Columbus, Ga., 
has been recently elected Principal of St. Elmo Institute of that 
city. 

A tablet to the memory of Col. R. L. Patterson, '51, has recently 
been placed in Memorial Hall. 

Augustus Van Wyck, '64, ex-judge of Brooklyn City Court, has 
been prominently mentioned as a presidential candidate in 1900. 

O. H. Dockery, Jr., Law '94— '95, and T. H. Newland, "94— '95, 
have been recently appointed to second-lieutenantcies in the regular 
army. 

A Review of the thesis of J E. Mattocks, '95, — The Lateral Sen- 
sory Aulage in the Salmon, Anat. Auzeiger Bd. 13 — for the Mas- 
ter's degree "96, has appeared in the recently issued volume for 1896 
(pp 336 — 37) of the Ergebenisse der Anatomie und Entwickelungs- 
geschichte. 



Alumni Notes 247 

In pursuance of the plan inaugurated in our last issue of taking 
up the different leading towns of the State and showing the influ- 
ential stand taken everywhere by alumni of the University, we pre- 
sent below the names and occupations of the alumni now residing 
in Charlotte. 

Samuel J. Gilmer, 1838 — '39, Prominent Shoe Merchaut. 

J. L. Morehead, A. B., 1853, Col. C.S. A., Capitalist and Manu- 
facturer. 

John H. McAden, 1853—54, Physician. 

Richard A. Torrence, A. B., 1855. Capt. C. S. A., Planter. 

Joseph Graham, A. B., 1857, Capt. C. S. A., Physician. 

Wm. S. Williams, 1857— '58, Hotelist. 

S. B. Alexander, A. B., 1860, Capt. C. S. A., ex-Congressman, 
Planter. 

Thos. Hill Haughton, A. B., 1861, Capt. C. S. A., Insurance 
Agent. 

Piatt D. Walker, 1865— '67. Lawyer, President of State Bar As- 
sociation. 

Alexander Graham, A. B., 1865, Sup't City Schools. 

George W. Graham, A. B., 1868, C. S. A., Physician. 

Lucian Holmes Walker. A. B., 1881, with Mecklenburg- Iron 
Works. 

John Francis Wilkes, Ph.B., 1881, Manufacturer. 

Wm. Alexander Graham, 1882 — '83, Physician. 

Heriot Clarkson, 1883 — '84, Lawyer. 

Henry Adolphus London, 1884 — '86, Merchant. 

Chas. Henry Duls, 1887, Lawyer. 

Wm. James Yates, 1887 — '88, Lawyer. 

Henry Neal Pharr, 1888— '89, Lawyer. 

Wm. Ross Robertson, 1890 — '93, Insurance. 

Frank McRae Shannonhouse, 1891 — '93, Lawyer. 

Ralph Van Landingham, 1892 — '94, In Southern Railway office. 

Fugene Berrien Graham, 1892 — '95, Charlotte Supply Co. 

Frank Ryan Harty, 1892— '95, Travelling Salesman. 

George G. Stevens, Ph.B., '96, Real Fstate Agent. 



248 University Magazine 

Wm. Elbert Farrior, 1894— '97, Merchant. 
Percy Moran Thompson, 1394— '97, Lawyer. 

Edward K. Graham, Ph.B., '98, Assistant Principal Charlotte 
Military Institute. 
C. A. Brenizer, Law, '98, Lawyer. 
E. C. Ray, ex-'99, Travelling Salesman. 
A. A. Burwell, Jr.. ex-'99, Travelling- Salesman. 
Adlai Osborne, ex-'99, Architect. 
Frank S. McNinch, Law, '99, Lawyer. 

RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT. 

We the committee appointed to draw up resolutions of respect on 
the death of our fellow member W. R. Tucker, beg - leave to submit 
the following report: 

Philanthropic Hall, 
Feb. 11, 1899. 

Whereas, God in his inscrutable providence has seen fit to take 
from us our fellow member W. R. Tucker, We. the members of the 
Philanthropic Society while hawing- in humble submission to the 
Divine call cannot but mourn his loss. 

Resolved: That we extend our sincere and heartfelt sympathy to the 
bereaved family. 

Resolved: That these resolutions be spread on the minutes of the 
Society and sent to the colleg-e periodicals for publication. 

W. F. Bryan ) 

J. W. Hinsdale > Committee. 

G-. V. CowpEr ) 

Philanthropic Hall, 

Feb. 18, 1899. 

vVhereas, God in His infinite mercy has seen fit to take from among 
us one, who was beloved and honored not only by his Society, but 
also by his University, his State, and his Country, We, the members 
of the Philanthropic Society, while bowing in humble submission to 
the call of Almightj' God and realizing- our great loss in the death 



Alumni Notes * 249 

of Doctor Manning-, know that the example of his noble life will 
continue in the future to exert an influence upon our lives even as it 
has in the past. 

And whereas, we the members of the Philanthropic Society having 
gathered together out of respect and in memory of Dr. John Man- 
ning, our esteemed Professor of Law, have hereby drawn up the 
following resolutions: 

Resolved isi. That this Society as one extend to the sorrowing" 
family their deep and most sincere sympathy. 

Resolved 2nd. That our Hall be draped until after commence- 
ment. 

Resolved 3rd. That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the 
family. 

Resolved 4th. That these resolutions be spread upon the records 
of the Society, and be published in the Tar Heel, University Maga- 
zine and State papers. 

J. H. Pratt, Chairman,. ] 

E. D. Broadhurst, 

A. J. Barwick, \ Committee. 

J. F. Stokes, 

J. K. Dozikr. J 



College Record. 

FRANCIS M. OSBORNE. AEONZO E. GATES. 

Mr. Percy Whitaker, '98, was in town last week. 

Mr. Harper, '99. Elon College came down to hear the annual de- 
bate. 

Mr. W. D. Pritchard, '01, has received a $2,000 clerkship at Ha- 
vana. 

$7,500 was appropriated by the Legislature for a water supply sA 
the University. 

. Prof. J. A. Holmes has been appointed one of the Commissioners 
to the Paris Exposition. 

Mr. Frank W. Cook. ex-'97, recently graduated at West Point, 
standing 29th in a class of 72. 

Dr. Thos. Clark delivered a lecture before the Chemical Society in 
Raleigh at its meeting in February. 

The debate with the University of Georgia took place March 17, 
at Athens, resulting in a victory for Carolina. 

The Senior photographers have practically finished their work 
here, and will complete the photos in Durham. 

Many new books have been added to the library this • spring. 
"Red Rock" is a great favorite here as elsewhere. 

Our first game of ball for the season was played with Horner 
March 8th. The score was 'Varsity 24, Horner 2. 

Dr. Hume, of the Department of English, recently delivered a lec- 
ture in High Point on "The Bible and Social Prog-ress. "' 

Dr. Chas. Baskerville was elected president of the North Carolina 
Chemical Association, at a meeting held several weeks ago. 



College Record 251 

The people of Guilford College were grea.tly delighted by a lec- 
ture from our talented and interesting Prof. Cobb, a few weeks 
ago. 

Dr. Thos. Hume has accepted an invitation to deliver two lectures 
before the Southern Biblical Assembly in Charlotte, N. C, June 

24—27. 

It has been a great deal of pleasure to the University to have 
Rev. Howard Rondthaler, '94, here again for a few days as Univer- 
sity Preacher. 

The D. K. K. fraternity gave two receptions to Miss Rosamond 
May of Boston, Mass., which were sources of great enjoyment to 
those who attended. 

Prof. J. Crawford Biggs, of the School of Law here, was elected 
Secretary and Treasurer of the State Bar Association recently or- 
ganized at Raleigh. 

Dr. Pratt, who gave a course here last spring known as Geology 
8 a, has rented the residence of F. K. Ball, a former Professor of ■ 
Greek in the University. 

Appropriate exercises were held on Washington's birthday in 
Gerrard Hall, Mr. H. P. Harding, '99, presiding. Messrs. Bernard, 
Phi. and Osborne, Di. were the orators of the day. Dr. K. P. Bat- 
tle, Professor of History, made the closing address. The speaking 
was all of a very superior kind. 

The lecture of Walter Page, Editor of the Atlantic Monthly, de- 
livered in Gerrard Hall, March 9th, was one of rare power and in- 
terest. North Carolina may well be proud of such a son. 

In the semi-annual inter-society debate Messrs. Thompson and 
Kluttz of the Di will represent the affirmative of the question, "Re- 
solved, That capital punishment should be abolished." Messrs. Cow- 
per and Stern will speak for the negative. The debate will come off 
sometime in April. 

In the eleventh annual inter-society debate, held in the Phi. Hall 
on March 4th, Messrs. A. E. Cates and Jno. M. Greenfield of the Di., 
represented the affirmative, and Messrs. D. P. Parker and B. B. 
Lane, Jr., of the Phi., the negative of the query — Resolved, "That 
the U. S. should annex Cuba, provided a majority of the people of 
Cuba ask for annexation." The Committee decided in favor of the 
engative. 



252 University Magazine 

The concert given in February by the Chapel Hill Choral Society 
was all that could be asked for. The rendering of each and every 
piece was magnificent. Miss Lawson, Soprano, and Mr. Dauer, 
Violinist, were both encored everytime, and the enthusiastic ap- 
plause which drew Miss Iyawson to the rostrum a second time best 
shows the keen appreciation of her lovely voice. Few can tell with 
what perfection Mr. Dauer drew many and varied notes from his vio- 
lin. Mrs. Whitehead and Miss McLinn at the piano added much 
pleasure to the evening. 

The committee of inspection, appointed by the Committee on Ed- 
ucation of the General Assembly, visited the University in Febru- 
ary. After prayers on the morning following their arrival, they 
made appropriate and interesting speeches in the Chapel, each 
avowing his devotion to the University, and promising us an in- 
creased appropi'iation for a water supply, which promise was not 
for naught. The committee consisted of Hons. H. Clay Wall, of 
Richmond county, R. L. Smith, of Stanlej 7 , Chairman of the Sen- 
ate Committe, Locke Craige, of Buncombe, Chairman of the House 
Committee on Education, James, of Pitt, Davis, of Franklin, Bryan, 
of Madison, Williams, of Yadkin, Mauney, of Cherokee, and Wil- 
liams of Cumberland. 

Our spring weather seems to have the virtue which tradition 
gives it in evoluting poetic effort. The following lines, entitled 
"A Plea for Co-Education" and signed ''A 'Varsity Boy" were re- 
cently submitted: 

Is it fair when the daughters of N. C. 
We welcome to the 'Varsity 
That the privilege of the N. & I. 
To us in turn the girLs deny? 

Officers of the University Moot Court for 1899: — 

Judge, J. Crawford Biggs. 

Assistant Judge, %. Vance Turlington. 
Solicitor, D. Lester Russell. 

Clerk of Court, Benjamin if. Kelley. 
Sheriff, J. H. McCall. 

Officers of the haw Class. 
President, J. F. Newell. 

Vice President, J. W. Cobb. 

Treasurer, B. B. Miller. 



sTnr^ri .Aicnstnim toiielni yisv bas bio jrav is moil 9 bam ».sv7 aaoi-\lBti 




JOHNSTON BLAKELEY. 

From a photograph, by Prof. Collier Cobb, of a portrait taken from a miniature at Kock Rest, 
the home of Ed. Jones. Esq., Solicitor General for North Carolina, 

i This half-tone was made from a very old and very inferior miniature, hence 
its appearance. Printed by Everett Waddey Co. Ed. I 



North Carolina University Magazine. 

Old series, vol. xxix. no. 5-*, 1899. New series, vol. xvi. 



CAPTAIN JOHNSTON BLAKELY. 



Johnston Blakely, the subject of this sketch, was 
born in October, 1781, at Seaford, in County Down, 
Ireland. In 1783 his father, Mr. John Blakely, togeth- 
er with his wife and two young sons, emigrated to 
America and landed at Charleston, S. C, In the next 
year he moved to Wilmington, N. C, accompanied on- 
ly by his son Johnston. According to some authorities 
his wife and youngest son died at sea. 

Soon after his arrival in Wilmington Mr. Blakely 
made the acquaintance of Col. E}d ward Jones, a fellow 
countryman by birth, the first Solicitor General of 
North Carolina. Mr. Blakely succeeded well in the 
mercantile business in Wilmington, so that when he 
died in 1797 he left, on account of his fast friendship, 
Col. Jones to be the executor of his will and guardian 
of his son, who was amply provided for. Young Blake^- 
ly had been sent by his father to the celebrated gram- 
1 



254 University Magazine 

max school at Flatbush, on Ivong Island. Here he was 
prepared for the then infant University of North Car- 
olina which he entered in the fall of 1797. 

The records of the Philanthropic Society, to which 
he belonged while in college, show that he entered his 
name as "Johnston Blakely, of Chatham," thus show- 
ing- that Wheeler in his history was mistaken in stating 
Wilming-ton as his place of residence. As a matter of 
fact Blakely was a mere boy when he left that city and 
it is certain that he always designated Col. Jones' 
Rock-Rest residence on the banks of the Haw in Chat- 
ham as his home. 

At this time Blakely is described as being strikingly 
handsome, with bright, black, flashing eyes and teeth 
of exceeding whiteness. He was rather small in stat- 
ure, but compact and muscular. Although somewhat 
reserved among strangers, he was gay and cheerful 
when at home. From his youth up, it is said, he al- 
ways commanded respect and won the affections of all 
who knew him. His portrait taken from a miniature 
likeness which was left at his home in Chatham, now 
hangs in the Philanthropic Society Hall. 

About one } 7 ear after Blakely's entrance into the Uni- 
versity, the property from which he derived his means 
. of support was suddenly swept away by fire and al- 
though offered assistance by his generous guardian, 
his high spirit and independent nature caused him to 
decline the proffered aid. He determined to enter the 
United States Navy for his life-work when the first 
opportunity presented itself. Accordingly through 
the influence of Col. Jones he secured the position of 



Captain Johnston Blakely 255 

Midshipman in the navy which he accepted in October, 
1800. Although this was at a time when the country 
was at peace he did not spend his time in idleness, but in 
acquiring- knowledg-e and in preparing" himself for the 
events of the unknown future. From this time on he 
rose step by step in his profession so that when war 
broke out with Great Britain in 1812 we find him in 
command of the U. S. Brig- Enterprise. Although 
this vessel was rather a heavy, slow-going" sea-craft, 
Blakely handled her with such skill as to make several 
captures, one of which is narrated by her commander 
in the following report to the Secretary of the Navy 
dated U. S. Brig Enterprise, Portsmouth, N. H., 
August 20th, 1813: - — 

"Sir: I have the honor to report to you the capture 
of the British privateer schooner, "The Fly." She 
was captured yesterday afternoon off Cape Porpoise, 
after a chase of eight hours. 

Very Respectfully, 
(Signed) Johnston Blakely. " 

Blakely did not remain in command of this vessel long 
for he was soon transferred and promoted to the com- 
mand of the U. S. Sloop-of-war Wasp, then in process 
of construction. < K\\ of the next winter Captain 
Blakely remained on shore superintending the building, 
rigging and equipment of the Wasp and enlisting and 
training her men. On May 1st, 1814, Capt. Blakely 
set sail from Portsmouth, N. H., with a full comple- 
ment of officers and men aboard, and soon appeared in 
the chops of the British channel. This was destined 
to be Blakely's last and by far most brilliant cruise. 



256 University Magazine 

His ship, which was rated as a first class sloop, car- 
ried 22 guns with a crew of 179 men. He captured on 
Y-ttjis cruise thirteen British merchantmen and two 
sloops-of-war, The Reindeer and The Avon. These 
deeds are written in his country's history and form 
one of its brightest pages. 

The Sloop-of-war Reindeer was taken and burned, 
June 28th, after a hard fought engagement, much brav- 
ery being shown on both sides. For this heroic achieve- 
ment Blakely received a gold medal by vote of Con- 
gress, thus being recognized by that body as one of the 
nation's naval heroes. After refitting in a French 
port he was again scouring the seas in search of Brit- 
ish prizes, and after the capture of the Avon Sept. 1, 
in a desperately fought engagement, the Wasp on 
Sept. 21, 1814, captured the Atalanta off the Madeira 
Islands. This rich prize was sent through the block- 
ade and reached Savannah in safety, 

This is the last authentic account we have of Blake- 
ly and his crew. It is thought that he made his way 
to the West Indies and in November started homeward, 
that he met a heavy armed vessel off Charleston bar 
and, an engagement resulting, that the Wasp went 
down with all her crew. If this be true, and the round 
of heavy firing off the coast distinctly heard about the 
time when the Wasp presumably was on the American 
coast makes it probable, her fate was most pathetic. 
Her commander was returning home in triumph, his 
vessel laden with wealth and his brow crowned with lau- 
rels bravely won; his crew had the most unbounded con- 
fidence in their commander. A desperate conflict with 



Captain Johnston Blakely 257 

this British frig-ate — twice the size of the Wasp — en- 
sued. Blakely and his men beat off the British foe 
and caused her to sheer off, we are told. But it was a 
dearly purchased victory, for the Wasp was crippled 
to her death, and in the very moment of victory this 
noble ship with her noble Captain and her gallant 
crew finds a watery grave amidst the waves of the 
Atlantic. 

Blakel} r was undoubtedly one of our country's great- 
est naval commanders and is so ranked by the best his- 
torians. Theodore Roosevelt mentions him along* with 
Decatur and Jones, and says, "It is no small g"lory 
to a country to have had such men upholding* the honor 
of its flag*. " The General Assembly of North Carolina 
presented him with a handsome sword in acknowledg-e- 
ment of deeds that "reflected honor upon North Caro- 
lina as being- performed by one of her sons." 

In April, 1814, Captain Blakely was married to Miss 
Jane Ann Hooper, of Boston, a daug-hter of an old friend 
of his father. To them was born a daug-hter, Udney 
Maria. When the sad fate of her father became known 
Judg-e Archibald DeBow Murphy introduced a reso- 
lution in the General Assembly of North Carolina that 
Captain Blakely 's child should be educated at the ex- 
pense of the State. This resolution was unanimously 
passed on the 27th of December, 1816, and until 1830 
the sum of six hundred dollars was annual \y appropri- 
ated for the support of the child. This same child grew 
up beautiful and accomplished. She married Baron 
Joseph VonBriton and removed to the West Indies 
where she died childless about a year after her mar- 
riage. 



258 University Magazine 

The race of Johnston Blakely is extinct but his name 
will ever live as that of a fearless, o-allant captain, and 
his brilliant career, tho' short, will cause him to be 
ranked in history along - with Perry, Bainbridge, Hull, 
Decatur, Jones, Porter, McDonoug-h and Stewart — 
the great naval heroes of the War of 1812. 

Henry Mauger London, '99. 



MONSIEUR MELANCHOLY. 



The dramatist who held "as 'twere, the mirror up 
to nature" and in his own wonderful way cast the im- 
pression of life in all its fullness upon a canvas before 
mankind of all ages, did not fail to picture in bold re- 
lief that deeply rooted tendency of English if not of 
universal human nature, melancholy. The genius of 
melancholy is sketched in its various phases through- 
out Shakespeare's drama of life; we might trace it in 
almost every play, though sometimes there is depicted 
only an occasional fit of sadness, a mere hypochondri- 
acal seizure, as in the case* of Antonio, the merchant of 
Venice, whose temporary dejection, the general topic 
of conversation at the beginning of the play, indicates 
no victim to sentimental passion but the temperament 
in which, as Boas says, "Emotion takes the more mas- 
culine and solid form of friendship." Hamlet madden- 
ed by noble grief, inspired by righteous wrath, driven 
to desperation by loss and suffering, is the embodiment 
of the melancholy, intense and terrible, which follows 
the destruction of lofty youthful ideals. Romeo lan- 
guishing under a love unrequited but half imagined 
and unreal, and later knowing real passion, haunted 
by a vague presentiment of evil, "crazed with care" 
and "crossed in hopeless love" was indeed "star-cross- 
ed" and 

"Melancholy marked him for her own." 



260 University Magazine 

In the forest of Arden, in the company of Rosalind, 
in the enchanted atmosphere of "As You Like It," we 
would cry "Hence, loathed melancholy!" But the 
spirit of Jacques is there, out of harmony with the 
surrounding's, yet a necessar}^ part of the plan, serving* 
to heighten the effect of comedy, making - stronger 
through contrast the main characters of the play, rep- 
resenting the purely contemplative side ©f life which 
will thrust itself into prominence even in the forest of 
Arden. The melancholy Jacques cannot be suppressed 
even though 

"Sweetest Shakespeare, Fancies' child 
Warble his native woodnotes wilde, " 
as he does so beautifully in this pastoral play, full of 
the freshness and fragrance and sylvan beauty of a 
"Midsummer Night's Dream, "whose g-uiding - spirit is, 
instead of the fun-loving- Puck, the heavenly Rosalind, 
the play picturing - the forest life of a banished duke 
and his co-mates in exile who find 

"Tongfues in trees, books in the running - brooks, 
Sermons in stones and g"ood in everything - ." 
In this life of the forest it is care that is banished. 
It is as if 

"Young - and old come forth to play 
On a sunshine holiday," 
and agfain 

"The hounds and horn 
Clearly rouse the slumbring" morn," 
music penetrates, 

"Untwisting - all the cords that tie 



Monsieur Melancholy 261 



The hidden soul of harmonv' 



"And every shepherd tells his tale 
Under the hawthorn in the dale." 
The melancholy Jacques is first referred to in Act 
II, Scene I, of "As You Like It," as moaning- over the 
spectacle of a wounded stag - , this circumstance prov- 
ing, it seems to us, not the index to an "amiable, gen- 
tle and humane disposition," ascribed to Jacques by 
Skottowe but only the excuse for a "thousand similes." 
The key to Jacques' character may be found in the 
duke's question, "Did he not moralize the spec- 
tacle?" His province is to moralize, but this 
moralizing - which the duke sometimes finds inter- 
esting - , these reflections on all situations of life result 
in nothing. Jacques never acts, neither his own life 
nor the life around him is in the least affected by his 
thought and his pessimism has no great disturbing- 
power. His enthusiasm and eagerness to hear more of 
Amiens' music is merely, he says himself, because he 
can "suck melancholy out of a song - , as a weasel sucks 
egg's." For him, as Fletcher had expressed it, there 
is 

"Nothing - so dainty sweet as lovely melancholy." 
His philosophy ends in this; 

"There's naug-ht in this life sweet, 
If man were wise to see it, 
But only melancholy; 
Oh, sweetest melancholy." 
He revels in melancholy, would be miserable with- 
out it, would not part with it for the world, is in 



262 University Magazine 

ecstasy when he finds a "fool in the forest," moraliz- 
ing - in his own vein, almost loses his melancholy in the 
joy "that fools should be so deeply contemplative," 
would turn fool himself for the purpose of "chiding- 
sin"and is by no means disconcerted when the duke re- 
proaches him, reminding- him that he has been a liber- 
tine. The duke's observation, 

"This wide and universal theatre 
Presents more woful pag-eants than the scene 
Wherein we play," 
which is called forth by the entrance of Orlando, seek- 
ing- food for Adam, is seized upon with delig-ht by Jac- 
ques as a text and elaborately he enlarg-es it, proclaim- 
ing- sententiously, "All the world's a stag-e, etc.," as 
he translates the Totus mundus ag-it histrionem in- 
scribed over the entrance to the Globe Theatre. The 
pictures of the seven ag-es, g-iven by Jacques, could not 
proceed, Mag-inn says, from a man very heavy at heart, 
for he enumerates merely those stag-es of life from the 
cradle to the grave which are common to all mankind, 
and shows no realization, no comprehension of the real 
misery and woe which "flesh is heir to." Jacques' ac- 
count of man's life is characteristic of the morbid na- 
ture and clearly reveals the fantastic sneerer and 
cynic. 

Touchstone and Jacques are admirably contrasted 
in dialog-ue; the former, as one of the critics states, is 
"shrewd, sharp, worldly, witty, keen, gfibing-, obser- 
vant," is entirely lacking- in the deeply contemplative 
but superficial nature of the melancholy Jacques. Jac- 
ques loves solitude, his only object in companionship is 



Monsieur Melancholy 263 

that he may have someone to"rail"with him "against our 
mistress the world and all our misery." His own def- 
inition of his melancholy is strikingly acute. He truW 
says, "It is a-melaucholy of mine own"-not the melan- 
choly of scholar, musician, courtier, soldier, lawyer, 
lady nor lover, for all these types of melancholy imply 
a cause and the possibility of relief and escape from 
gloom and sorrow in case the cause were removed. 
For these victims of melancholy it is still true that 
"Hope springs eternal in the human breast" and im- 
pels to action. All yearn and strive for a glimpse of 
the sunlight behind the cloud. But the melancholy of 
Jacques is permanent and ineradicable, a type of its 
own peculiar kind, not confined to one individual of the 
forest of Arden, but ever present as a discordant ele- 
ment somewhere in the life about us. Jacques' melan- 
choly is his very life and he is content so long as it 
wraps him in that most "humorous sadness." The 
mere subject of melancholy has a fascination for Jac- 
ques, he loves to analyze it, makes the brilliant diag- 
nosis of his own case and displays remarkable famil- 
iarity with the malady in general and in its various 
phases, reminding us of Burton in that curiosity of 
literature, "The Anatomy of Melancholy," seeking to 
give in his alarmingly elaborate and erudite form the 
seat, varieties, causes, symptoms, and cures of melan- 
choly. For Jacques, however, there is no interest in 
remedies, for his melancholy, as has been said, is his 
most cherished possession. Jacques' part in the clos- 
ing scene of "As You Like It" is thoroughly charac- 
teristic. When there is a general happy culmination 



264 University Magazine 

to the sojourn in the forest, Jacques takes his leave of 
his companions to join the once usurping- duke, now a 
"convertite, " as he is just entering- upon the hermit's 
life, replying to the invitations to witness the nuptials 
and join in the revelry in his most emphatic way, "To 
see no pastime, I!" 

Jacques is one of the remarkable conceptions of 
Shakespeare, stands apart from all around him, is dif- 
ferent in nature frbm Touchstone, the peasants and 
the characters of high life; his self-sufficiency is equal 
to that of Malvolio, his self-appreciation to that of a 
Benedick, his bitterness and cynicism to that of Don 
John, though he has not the maliciousness and evil de- 
sig-n of the last; he seems akin to Shakespeare's fools, 
yet is entirely lacking in Falstaff's ingenuity, in fact 
shares scarcely a trait with him and is almost an op- 
posite of Peste, Olivia's fool, who studied to please 
while jesting, suiting his words to the mood of his lis- 
tener. Jacques should have been Monsieur Melan- 
choly in an old Morality play, as someone has sug - - 
gested. 

The melancholy of "As You Like It" is concentrat- 
ed in the melanchol}? Jacques, unless the varying 
moods of Rosalind, who cannot forget a banished fath- 
er in the life of court, who again is momentarily de- 
pressed on account of love for Orlando, be considered, 
or we take into account a slight and rapidly passing- 
melancholic tendency in Orlando. 

•The fascination of Jacques is too great for George 
Sand, who has allowed imagination to run riot and 
pictured Jacques in her "Comme II Vous Plaira," not 



Monsieur Melancholy 265 

as the unique factor in an underplot, but as the real 
hero, far eclipsing - Rosalind and Orlando in interest, 
and has crowned her erroneous conception by the mar- 
riage of Jacques to Celia. Strange match indeed! The 
Jacques who could marry at all, who could love at all, 
is not the melancholy Jacques, the blase sentimental- 
ist of "As You Like It," but a totally different char- 
acter. Thus the motive o± the comedy is entirely 
changed. 

The eminent critic Brandes has in his truly original, 
ingenious and interesting - analysis of Jacques, wander- 
ed far from any conception which appears warrantable 
by the text of the play; his sympathies have been so 
far enlisted by the constant sadness and skillful moral- 
izing - of Jacques as to cause him to spiritualize and 
idealize him to an exent almost incredible. Brandes 
eulogizes Jacques until, in his dreaming", he sees him 
as the very incarnation of Shakespeare. Shakespeare 
may have recorded many of his own traits and opinions 
in his characters but. they are doubtless fused into the 
general life so as to be inseparable, the object of his 
work being not the demonstration of any theory or the 
perpetuating of his own or any other real character, 
but the chronicling of everj^ phase of life. As Samuel 
Johnson said, 

•'Each change of many colored life he drew 
Exhausted worlds and then imagin'd new." 
Shakespeare is known to the world as both grave 
and genial, not melancholic. Even if his Sonnets re- 
veal something of darkness and gloom in his own life, 
we imagine he had nothing of the view of the cynical 



266 University Magazine 

Epicurean "IDat, drink, and be merry for to-morrow 
you die." Certainly the great panorama of life lie has 
spread before us in his writings conveys more to the 
human mind than the hopeless philosophy — "While 
you live, Drink! for once dead you never shall return." 
Instead of formulating such a theory or lapsing - into 
the melancholy of Jacques and shutting himself from 
the world, it is felt that Shakespeare could say at least 
with Tennyson, 

"The shade by which my life was crost 
Has made me kindly with my kind." 
Hardly would Shakespeare have selected as his mouth- 
piece, to give voice to melancholic sentiments of his 
own, Jacques, the misanthrope, the embodiment of 
ennui. 

It is not conceivable that Shakespeare intended Jac- 
ques for a superior type of character, as some of the 
critics seem inclined to believe, for according to the 
law of natural consequences his early life and charac- 
ter could not lead to any lofty plane. His whole mor- 
al nature had been undermined and ruined by that god- 
dess of revenge who follows Shakespeare's characters 
so closely. Shakespeare hardly held the doctrine "Of 
life outliving hearts of youth," and at any rate, we 
think, did not preach it as a truth in the case of Jac- 
ques. His Hal can not be cited to prove the con- 
trary, for Hal was not contaminated by his low com- 
pany. 

No doubt Shakespeare felt deeply the terrible 
truths of life; no doubt he had his moments of extreme 
depression, knew the song of the 



Monsieur Melancholy %*l 

"Sweet bird, that shun'st the noise of folly 

Most musical, most melanchoty," 
and felt the beauty of the "cherub, contemplation." 
But we do not see with Brandes the analogy between 
the gloom in the forest of Arden was for no purpose 
but to 

"Feed with sighs a passing - wind." 
Perhaps the most charitable construction to put upon 
the character of Jacques is that he was suffering 
from a species of real insanity known to-day as Melan- 
cholia. 

In depicting melancholy Shakespeare gives due 
prominence to the type which springs from fancy as 
distinct from that arising from the deepest feeling. 
In duke Orsino and Olivia of "Twelfth Night," we 
have two distinct phases of melancholy; Orsino living 
in despondency and dejection and inaction suffers 
merely from a fancied love unreturned, Olivia, playing 
the part of a recluse, vowing to seclude herself from 
the world for fourteen years in memory of a dead 
brother, is making grief itself artificial. Viola, 

"Never told her love 

She pined in thought 

And with a green and yellow melancholy, 

She sat like patience on a monument 
Smiling at grief." 
However mistaken Viola's general course, according to 
modern standards, her feeling was real and resulted in 
energy and action. 



268 University Magazine 

There is something- beautiful in the '"Sad Shep- 
herd," the gentle ICg'lamour, as he is pictured by Ben 
Jonson, wandering - in search of the lost Marine, 
crying - in his sorrow when urg-ed to join his fellows, 
and enjoy the solace of the Spring - — "A spring - , now 
she is dead!" Our sympathy for him is akin to that 
felt for the crazed Ophelia strewing" flowers in her an- 
g-uish. In the melancholy of the Sad Shepherd we see 
sorrow and deep gloom, glorified by the strength of 
pure and noble love, a melancholy almost divine. 

Par removed from the melancholy arising - from the 
depth of intense feeling - and in contrast to it is the af- 
fected pessimism of Jacques, a misanthropy springing - , 
like that of Childe Harold, from base living - . Both 
Childe Harold and Jacques, were 

"Of moody texture from their earliest day 
And loved to live in darkness and dismay." 

Milton has thrown himself with all his soul, as Mr. 
Hales has shown, into his portrait of II Penseroso. 
His nature appears in his poem. He reveals his real 
sympathy not for 1/ Allegro but II Penseroso, for the 
temperament depressed, yielding - to melancholy, inclin- 
ed to study, loving - music, charmed by the nig-hting-ale; 
he idealizes the character until he invests it with the 
mystical power of a vales, believing- that he shall, as 
Miton himself hoped to do 

"Attain 

To something - like prophetic strain." 

Milton's melancholy is of an order too hig-h to admit 
of classification. Another word than melancholy is 



Monsieur Melancholy 269 

needed t© designate and describefthe tendency of his 
mind, which almost seems the result of contact with 
the Infinite. In the character of II Penseroso there is 
nothing of the cynicism of Jacques. For Milton, this 
life is something - more than sighs. II Penseroso is the 
type of the grave rather than the sad spirit. With 
the 

"Pensive nun, devout and pure" 
Milton wanders, as says Taine, "amidst grave 
thoughts and grave sights which recall a man to his 
condition and prepare him for his duties." 

The melancholy Jacques lives forever in the world, 
as well as on Shakespeare's page, where he is known 
as an inimitable and immortal creation, one of the 
dramatist's masterpieces. But Jacques inspires no 
homage. In his presence there is no impulse to cry 
out "Hail! divinest melancholy!" 

Bessie Lewis Whitaker. 



DID THIS EVER HAPPEN TO YOU? 



When you were quite green-just about eighteen, 

Were you timid and awkward and shy? 
Were there bumps on your face and in every place 

Where company was, did you try 

To feel like the others did, too? 

Did this ever happen to you? 

Did your feet feel as large as an ocean barge? 
Did your elbows take up a whole room? 

Your voice, did it squeak, when you tried speak, 
Or sound like the hoarse horn of doom, 
That thrilled your kind hearers all through? 
Did this ever happen to you? 

Did you love every lass that happened to pass, 

But were you afraid one to meet? 
Were you both hot and cold, when you grew so bold 

As to offer your love at ©ne's feet? 

Oh say, were you all of a stew? 

Did this ever happen to you? 

And did your girl smile, and then love you awhile, 

Or at least pretend that she did? 
Then for some other coon kick you high as the moon, 

And say you were only a kid? 

And then, oh say, were you blue? 

Did that ever happen to you? 

J. W. Greening, '00. 



ELECTION OF UNITED STATES SENATORS. 



[This is the first speech on the negative, following Mr. P. H. Doy- 
al of Georgia, delivered by Mr. E. D. Broadhurst of North Caro- 
lina, in the Inter- Collegiate Debate between the University of Geor- 
gia and the University of North Carolina, held at Athens, Ga., 
March 17, 1899, on the query, "Resolved, That United States Sen- 
ators should be elected by the direct vote of the people." Time al- 
lowed each speaker, thirty minutes. The speech delivered by Mr. 
T. C. Bowie of North Carolina will appear in the June issue of the 
Magazine. — Ed.] 

Mr. Chairman, Gentlemen oe the Committee, 
Ladies and Gentlemen : — 

The general question for discussion to-night is: Shall 
we give to every citizen of this state the right to his 
vote directly for U. S. Senators who represent this 
State as a political being m the national legislature. 

It appears to us that there are just two points to be 
considered in dealing with this change. 

1st. Let us see if the jbresent indirect mode of 
election by legislatures is not in harmony zuith our 
system of Representative Democracy. 

If we can show you that the present indirect mode 
ofelectio?i is in harmony with our system of Represen- 
tee Government, then Sirs — why should the indirect 
mode of electing Senators be changed unless the indi- 
rect mode ©f electing ©r oppointing every other govern- 
ment officer be changed also? Are not the President 
and Vice-President both elected indirectly by the 
people? Every officer that the President appoints — does 



272 University Magazine 

he not represent the people even though he is elected 
indirectly? The Supreme Court Judges, the Federal 
Judges, all Ambassadors and Ministers, the cabinet 
officers, your post masters, etc., are all subject to 
indirect election. Do they not represent the people 
even though they are elected indirectly? 

Thus we see there is nothing* strange or out of order 
that U. S. Senators should be elected indirectlv by the 
legislatures since our whole scheme of Representative 
Government is founded upon delegated power and 
indirect election. 

Sirs — You cannot attack the present mode of elect- 
ing Senators as being out of harmony, without declaring 
our whole system of Representative Government to be 
an inharmonious conglomeration of inconsistencies that 
ought to be changed from bottom to top. 

Now that we see the present mode of indirectly elect- 
ing Senators is in harmony with our scheme of 
Representative Government— there can be no reason 
for changing the present mode and making it direct 
unless you wish to tear down our whole system of 
government and in its stead place an absolute Demo- 
cracy in which every man can vote directly for every 
officer from President to County Constable. 

Now if you do away with all representatives and let 
the people act directly you must solve the problem of 
holding elections as it was solved in the western part 
of N. C, by letting every candidate pass around his 
hat and return quietly to his home to count the votes. 

Imagine Bryan and McKinley canvassing under such 
conditions. I know Georgia would help tear down the 



Election of United Slates Senators 273 

"Cross of Gold" but I am sorely afraid the "Crown of 
Thorns" would remain unmoved if Mark Hanna helped 
McKinley count his votes. 

If you wish an absolute Democracy, in which alone 
your scheme will fit, instead of a Representative gov- 
ernment such as we have to-day, then you have a right, 
yes an inalienable right, to clamor for the proposed 
change that you fancy will make us a greater and 
more progressive people. 

But mind you-If an absolute Democracy was a failure 
in the Grecian Cities; if it was a failure in the Italian 
Provinces; if it has been a failure wherever and when- 
ever history- has seen it tried, in cities and small 
republics; it stands to reason, that an absolute 
Democracy would ruin this government of seventy mil- 
lions of people. 

Now let us see if the -present mode of election has ?iot 
given the best results possible under any conditions . 

We admit that it has not given the most desirable re- 
sults in States where politics has reached the low water 
mark. The present mode was not created and adopt- 
ed to send a noble statesman from a state 
which was full of millionaires, machines and party 
manipulators. But the present mode was adopted to 
select from any state the highest product of the 
politics in that state. And I leave it with any commit- 
tee if Mark Hanna and Quay are not the highest 
products of the politics of their parties in their re- 
spective states. 

Again let me ask the gentlemen of the affirmative if 
they dare to argue that Georgia's line of illustrious 
Senators, extending over a period of one hundred and 



274 University Magazine 

ten years, hasn't been the highest product of their State's 
politits? I hardly think they will. When you are 
prepared to argue that your past Senators have not been 
true representative Georgians, when you are prepared 
to declare to the world that your state legislature 
has reached such a degraded point that it cannot be 
trusted with the most important duties pertaining to 
State sovereignty, then and not till then are'you prepar- 
ed to clamor for this change. 

You will always find it the case that a state which 
has a high standard in politics has little trouble in 
electing the statesman. Sirs — If you would reform 
the Senate you must reform the people, for.as the people 
are so will the Senate be. The Senate as a whole is a 
representative body and can justly reply to those who 
clamor for reform, "Physician heal thyself." If it 
happens that a corrupt man reaches the U. S. . Senate 
through his State Legislature, by referring to his 
state's local government you will find no better man 
filling the Governor's chair. 

You cannot have a pure legislative body or pure rep- 
resentative of any kind if you have behind it a corrupt 
people. 

The mode of election is not to be blamed. It is the 
rottenness of Ohio's politics that has sent Mark Hanna 
to the Senate. Are we in the South to suffer because 
of Ohio's failures? The same method that placed de- 
bauched millionaires from the degraded politics of a few 
north-western states in the Senate, that same method 
sends honest, able, true statesmen from all over the 
South where politics has not reached a degraded point. 



Election of United States Senators 275 

A method of election is not hopelessly bad that sends a 
Hawley from Connecticut; a Beverage from Indiana; 
a Daniel from Virginia; a Morgan from Alabama; a 
Davis from Mississippi ;a Benton from Missouri ;a Vance 
from North Carolina; a Toombs and a Hill from Geor- 
gia. Surely that method cannot be hopelessly bad. 

Do not your present Senators represent the highest 
product of Georgia's politics? History tells us that 
your mistakes in Senatorial elections have been few. 
That you have always honored the people's choice and 
secured the expression of their deliberate will. Was 
not Crisp the people's favorite? But he passed away 
ere honor could claim her own. 

We have shown to you that the present indirect mode 
of election is in harmony with our representative form 
of government, and second that the present mode 
always acts with the best results possible under any 
conditions. And that is all any mode can do. There- 
fore we should not change the present method of choice 
unless it can be shown beyond a reasonable doubt that 
the method of direct election, if instituted, would give 
us Senates in the future that would excel the Senates 
of the past both morally and intellectually. 

Think for a moment how we have developed under 
the Senates elected by the legislature. A century ago 
we were thirteen states along the Atlantic coast. 
To-day vast Rail Roads have joined the Atlantic and 
Pacific, the Great Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico. The 
Church has gained its rightful place in our advance- 
ment. Education has been fostered and has wrought 
wonders in our striving. Our population has increased 



276 University Magazine 

a hundred fold to occupy the Western field 
from which thirty-two states have sprung* and been 
admitted into the family of states. Mediaeval Spain 
has made room for our progress. Yes, the soberest 
historian records the story of our commercial develop- 
ment and it reads like a fairy tale. 

You will remember that in 1890 this country passed 
through a great crisis. The House of Representatives 
gfave an overwhelming" majority in favor of the infamous 
"Forde Bill," or Lodg-e election law. But the Senate, 
true to its nature, stemmed the tide that threatened our 
progress and the welfare of our Southland was pre- 
served. Think Sirs — What would have been the action 
of the Senate if it too had been composed of the 
direct representatives of the people. 

Never yet have we had a Federal election law. But 
the gentlemen arg*ue for such a curse in their ardent 
plea for an absolute Democracy. The same argument 
used for the direct election of Senators applies with 
equal force to the direct election of the President and 
Vice-President by the people. Grant the one and the 
people will demand the other. The two movements g-o 
hand in hand. Now when Senators, Vice-President and 
Presidents are all elected by the direct vote of the 
people, pray, tell me what arguments can you set forth 
ag"ainst the passag-e of a Federal election law; agfainst 
federal officials holding - your elections? 

Not only does the burden of proof rest upon the 
affirmative to prove to you beyond all doubt that direct 
elections will do as well in the future as indirect rep- 
resentative elections have done in the past, for that 



Election of United States Senators 277 

would be no reason for such a deep-seated change; but 
the} 7 must prove that direct elections, if instituted, 
would secure to us a greater prosperity in the future 
and create Senates that will better act as the balance 
wheel to too vicious and hasty legislation. 

Our fathers iti creating - the Lower House of Con- 
gress intended that it should represent the people 
directly. In creating the Senate they had some- 
thing- more in view than a second house of representa- 
tives whose members should be directly from the peo- 
ple. The Senate was to represent the states as equals, 
and we mean by the word State something more than 
a mere mass of individuals. It was to be a court of 
sovereigns where every sovereign was to have an equal 
voice. Thus we see they created a government of checks 
and 'balances. Every proposed act would have had 
to be judged from two separate authorities — from two 
different points of view, namely, that of the people and 
that of the state. The Senate Chamber was to be 
a hall of deliberation where North Carolina and Georgia 
could meet New York and Pennsylvania as equal 
sovereign states. And lastly the Senate was created 
that we might have a body to represent deliberation in 
the expression of the popular will by the length of the 
term of office of its members and by its removal 
from the direct popular vote in the method of choice. 

Just here the Senate is attacked and we propose to 
show you that if the method of choice which is now 
removed is made direct that the essential character of 
the Senate will be destroyed in each of these particu- 
lars — that you will destroy the Senate of our fathers, 



278 University Magazine 

the Senate that has guided us thus far — and in its 
stead the method of direct election will place a second 
House of Representatives to act as a check upon the 
present House in passionate moods. 

The Constitutional Convention of 1787 recognized the 
fact that two Houses composed of representatives 
directly from the people could not be a sufficient check 
and they voted down this very mode of direct election, 
not because they thought the people were not supreme, 
but because they knew the people had learned to act 
through representatives, because they knew that a 
state's chosen legislature was legally, by the people's 
consent, the best and only true representative body ot 
a state to perform such an important act of sovereignty. 

But the opposition declare to you that the framers of 
our Constitution distrusted the people, and that that 
distrust accounts for the present indirect representative 
mode of electing U. S. Senators. 

The Constitutional Convention, composed partly of 
the same men who signed the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence in '76, gave to the world a sign of the purest, 
noblest trust in the people. Its trust in the people was 
sublimer than that of any other body of men who have 
gathered together in human history. As Mr. Hoar 
says "They were laying deep the foundations of 
what was hoped would be an eternal structure. Every 
stone, every beam, every rafter, was laid in confidence 
of the wisdom and justice of the people and their eternal 
capacity for self-go\ernment." 

Trust in the people was with them an article of pro- 
foundest religious faith. They derived that doctrine 



Election of United States Senators 279 

of human equality which they placed in the fore-front 
of that Declaration, from the word of God, as they 
read and interpreted it. Surely you do not mean to say 
that those men who placed the great declaration of 
natural rights at the very foundation of their govern- 
ment and pledged all that was dear to them on earth 
to maintain them, distrusted the people. Sirs — It was 
not because the framers of our constitution distrusted 
the people says Mr. Hoar, it was because they trusted the 
people that they confidently asked their adoption of a con- 
stitution which compelled them to deliberation, to sober 
thought, to delegated power, to action through select- 
ed agencies, to thinking twice before acting once. It 
was not Hamilton or Madison, Washington or Robert 
Few, or Abraham Baldwin but the people of the whole 
United States, who ordained and established our 
Federal Constitution. Our fathers feared and dis- 
trusted the people's hasty, direct and immediate action 
and by the present mode of election they secured their 
calm, cool, settled, deliberate action. 

The present mode is called undemocratic. We will 
admit that it is not democratic in the true sense of the 
word. We would also remind the gentlemen of the 
opposition that we have not yet established that abso- 
lute democracy they cry for. We have proved to you 
that we have a representative democracy and that the 
present mode of electing senators is in harmony with 
our scheme of representative government, and we are 
bound to have a representative government in such a 
country and age as ours. 

Again does the burden of proof rest upon the affirm- 



280 University Magazine 

ative to show beyond a reasonable doubt that a change 
to direct election would not undermine our whole sys- 
tem of government. 

To the Southern people nothing - can be more harm- 
ful and dangerous to their interests than the tendency 
towards centralization. Now it is a fact that can't be 
disputed that the more of the people's leg-ally delegated 
power you take from their representative legislatures, 
the less will that legislature, the centre of a state, re- 
ceive the hearty support of the people. Their love for 
state will begin to cool and they will begin to look to 
Washington as the centre of a fast becoming central- 
ized government. Sirs — The change to direct election 
of Senators will take from the state's law making body 
the crowning emblem of the people's delegated power, 
and in placing the people in a closer direct connection 
with Washington, will be one more great step towards 
dreaded centralization. 

The Senate and the Supreme Court are the two 
great distinguishing features of our Constitution which 
have commanded for it the admiration of thoughtful 
persons the world over. Now the Senate represents, 
as I have said, the states as political beings, without 
regard to numbers or wealth. So that every measure 
has to run the gauntlet of two separate authorities,one 
the direct representatives of the people, voting accord- 
ing to numbers, and the other the representatives of the 
states, voting as units and equals. This is the great 
conservative feature of our government and prevents 
us from being a mere democracy which can be hurried 
into action, dangerous or fatal, by great spasms of 
popular excitement. 



Election of United States Senators 281 

My friendly opponents argue that the Senate does 
not derive its conservative nature from the mode of 
electing - its members. On the other hand they tell us 
that its stability is to be accounted for in their long- 
term of office, and their matured age, and the fewness 
in number of its members. Since the conservative na- 
ture of the Senate is thus accounted for, pray tell me 
how you are to account for the radical nature of the 
House of Representatives? You, together with the 
world, are bound to admit that the radical nature of the 
House of Representatives is a result of the mode of 
electing its members. The Senate's conservative na- 
ture is a result of the mode of its election also ; for sta- 
tistics show that of the present House of Representa- 
tives 72 per cent, are old enough to be eligible to Sen- 
atorship ; 58 per cent, have been in Congress over six 
years and 28 per cent, have been there over eight 
years while 12 per cent, have been there ten years. 
Tell me why you haven't conservatism in the House of 
Representatives. Because its members are dependent 
upon the masses of the people for their election. Why 
have you conservatism in the Senate? Because its 
members are removed from the turbulent masses in that 
they are elected by the chosen representative electors 
of the whole State. Your state legislature, the chos- 
en men of the State, elects them ; hence comes their 
conservatism. 

Again we are told that the quality of the Senate will 
not be effected. I'll not argue that point, but will simply 
leave it to your judgment if a man elected by a legis- 
lature, itself composed of picked men chosen under the 



282 University Magazine 

law and sworn to do their duty to their state and to 
their God, will not differ in quality from a man chosen 
by a political convention which is gathered together 
under no safeguards of the people's rights. 

The Senate has been branded a "Beer Garden" in 
times past. Even when Webster, Hayne, Calhoun, and 
Clay were there. When Vance, Ben Hill ,and Toombs, 
held the Senate for hours as if it were under the ma- 
gician's hands — the press denounced it. And today 
when Clay and Bacon take the floor, lest this govern- 
ment should forget its precedent and its honor and 
commit the crime of this century in annexing and rul- 
ing an unwilling people, whose patriotism and love of 
liberty is as deep-seated as our own — yes, today no 
epithet is too low or degrading to be applied to the 
American Senate. 

It has been called "The balance wheel to vicious 
and hasty legislation." Time has proved to us that it 
deserves that compliment. History has shown us also 
the fearful results that would have followed in the 
path of the House of Representatives had a loose line 
been given to its passionate, hasty will. 

What was supposed to be a popular demand, which 
you would enthrone, seemed to call for the impeachment 
of Johnston by a vote of 126 to 47 and caused the House 
of Representatives to cast a vote of thanks to the cap- 
turers of Mason and Slidell — but the Senate saved our 
honor and secured progress. 

Waves of popular excitement like the Salem witch- 
craft, the anti-mason rage of 50 years ago, the anti- 
Jewish craze in Russia and France today, or any other 



Election of United States Senators 283 

silly crusade against an imaginary or exaggerated dan- 
ger will more easily influence the public acts of repre- 
sentatives elected directly by an excited mass of men 
than those of men who are sufficiently independent of 
popular breezes to be obedient to their own unbiased 
judg-ment. 

The advocates of direct election, knowing- that it 
would necessitate an amendment at least to our Con- 
stitution, point with pride to the fact that it has been 
chang-ed, they say, fifteen times. Why not chang-e ag-ain, 
they ask us? Perhaps our Constitution does need 
chang-ing- if it is to be chang-ed in the same manner that 
it has been chang-ed heretofore. With the exception 
of the amendment concerning- the election of the Pres- 
ident and Vice-President, I defy you to point me to one 
amendment to our Constitution in which the people 
have not placed checks upon themselves. 

Quote me one other amendment that is not wholly 
negative itf its structure and meaning-. Our fathers 
placed certain bulwarks in our Constitution ag-ainst 
the easily aroused popular will, and when the Consti- 
tution was submitted to the people — Did they reject it 
on that account? No! Says Mr. Chandler — They g-ave 
it a more lasting- foundation by inserting- other safe- 
guards still. I would have those seeking- this chang-e 
in our Constitution to bear in mind that the chang-e 
they ask for, if granted, will be the first fundamental 
chang-e that has been made in the foundation of our 
g-overnment. Truly amendments have been added, but 
never before has such a direct attack been made on the 
very principles of our g-overnment. 



284 University Magazine 

Years have passed — The people want this amend- 
ment, they tell us. Congress has passed resolutions 
concerning - it; party platforms cry out for it; the press 
is raging. All this is true; but their very acts warn 
us against the change; the people act by spells, they 
can't 'think in a day or a month or a year. We must 
deal with this matter gently, quietly and wisely. It 
is not a matter of to-day, last month or last year. 
Judge the Senate by its history, by its experience of a 
hundred years and more. 

E}very age seems to have had a spirit. Homer gave 
to the world the spirit of his age. Shakespeare was 
contemporary with the spirit of dramatic poetry. Our 
Constitution was created in an age of constitutional 
law, the greatest the world has ever known. Under 
this Constitution we love and honor a great people — a 
great republic has grown up. Under it and for it 
wars have been fought. In its* presence proud Spain 
has bowed and passed away. The sto*y of this 
country's development under it can't be told. 

We have it to-day as the gift of our fathers, never 
having been changed fundamentally ; and we warn you 
to be careful and bring- the same wisdom and sagacity 
to change it that your fathers used in creating- it — for 
you ask for its first fundamental change. 

The Senate Chamber has been the most conspicuous 
arena for all this nation's conflicts. Swords have been 
measured and strengths tried there. The great con- 
quests which gave the Union and Constitution their 
Empire over the reason and affection of the people 
have been achieved there. There Webster lived and 



Election of United States Senators 285 

taught the world. There Calhoun lived and taught 
Webster. There Robert Toombs joined hands with 
Jefferson Davis and fought for the right of State. 
There today Clay and Bacon, shoulder to shoulder, 
fight for the right of Freedom, for the right of Lib- 
erty, for the right of Humanit} 7 , for the right of free 
Government to all men ever} 7 where. 
3 



AN UNSUCCESSFUL 'POSSUM HUNT. 



One afternoon as I was lazily sauntering - down the 
principal street of X — , with nothing- particular to do, 
and with my thoughts off in dreamland, I suddenly 
noticed on the other side of the way a figure making- 
frantic g-estures at me. I stopped, my thoughts com- 
ing- down to mundane affairs with a mig-hty rush. As I 
looked again, I saw the burly, hurculean form and 
curly brown head of my old school fellow and college- 
mate, Henry Stephenson, as he slowly forg-ed his way 
across the crowded street. 

"Sa}\ Jack, I have g-ot two or three town-girls 
spending- the the week with my sisters out at my home 
and I want you and Bob Williams and one or 
two other fellows to come out this afternoon, and 
we'll take a big- 'possum-hunt to-night. We went the 
other night and caught four 'whoppers.' And besides, 
you know, your friend Miss Alice Brenton is staying 
with us." 

"I'll be there, Henry, said I; this is fine weather, 
and what we'll do for those 'possums will be almost 
enoug-h." Henry said nothing-, but I noticed a sup- 
pressed smile flitting- around his firm-set mouth. 
It must be confessed that I had accepted somewhat 
eagerly, after he had made that last statement about 
who his company was. 

Late that afternoon, Bob Williams and I drove up to 
the old country-house of my friend. As we drove up 



An Unsuccessful 'Possum Hunt 287 

the long- sweeping- drive-way lined on either side with 
low, closely trimmed box-bushes, we had a g-ood view 
of the fine old country-seat, with its vast porch and 
hug-e pillars and large open windows, its velvety 
turf in front, and century-old oaks, and its dark and 
gloomy woods sweeping- off to rig-ht and left as far 
as the eye conld reach. Henry met us on the piazza. 
After our horse had been put up, we knocked about 
the farm, visiting- Old Pete and his noted pack of 
hounds, till dark. 

After a g-ood supper, we ail started outgoing- into the 
deep, dark woodson the left of the house. In front with 
the dogs were Henry, armed with a big- axe, and one of the 
g-irls, then Bob and the other boys and g-irls. Some- 
how, I don't know exactly how, Alice and I found our- 
selves along- with Old Pete. She couldn't walk as fast 
as the others, and I — why I stayed behind to talk to 
Old Pete, who, on account of old ag-e and 'a tech of the 
misery,' was not quite as active as he had formerly 
been. With one hand Old Pete carried a big- sack of 
apples, that article so indespensable to a 'possum-hunt, 
and in the other a pine torch. Thinking- that it was 
his bounden duty to entertain 'young- Missey, ' he poured 
out a strang-e medley of stories of his youthful adven- 
tures, and blood-curdling- tales of ghosts and g-oophers, 
which he had 'heer'd of from his folks.' 

"Iviss'n, dah g-oes Belle, she's de beaten'est dawg- in 
dis heah kyuntr} r ." Sure enoug-h, way off in front we 
could hear the deep, bell-like notes, soon followed by 
short, sharp barks of the other dog-s. Seeing- that we 
should not be able to catch up with the others and upon 



288 University Magazine 

Old Pete's repeated assurance that they would soon be 
back our way, we all sat down upon an old fallen tree, 
and Old Pete began to while away the time with fresh 
stories ©f midnight adventures wnth unholy spirits. 
Suddenly I felt a cold drop of water on my hand and 
soon it began literally to pour down rain. After 
repeated questioning, Old Pete said that he knew of 
but one shelter anywhere for miles arouud. This was 
an old deserted and said to be haunted church. At 
first he absolutel} 7 refused to show us the way, but 
finally, by dint of much persuasion and coaxing on the 
part of Alice, and a few threats on my part, he was in- 
duced to guide us to the place. It was an old wooden 
building, long disused and in ruins, surrounded by an 
old burying-ground; the half-sunken crosses looked 
ver} 7 uncanny when half-revealed by lightning Slashes 
in the darkness. I could feel Old Pete trembling, and 
at every rustling- in the grass he would start and 
shiver. 

After we had been seated in the church some fifteen 
minutes, — I taking good care to get between Pete and 
the door — we heard a mighty scratching up at the 
other end of the room, and slowly one-two-three-four, 
there seemed no end to the number, white figures came 
trooping down the center aisle right towards us. We 
were in complete darkness, the rain having put our 
torch out, but the incessant flashes of lightning alter- 
nately revealed and shut them from our view. They 
would stop and come on again. The suspense was 
becoming unbearable and something had to be done. 
Locking the door, I told Pete to stay with Miss Alice, 



An Unsuccessful 'Possum Hunt 289 

while I went to investigate. Suddenly I heard a 
dreadful yell I wheeled around and got a flash-light pict- 
ure of Old Pete crashing through the rotten door, his coat 
tail as level as a card table, his hat gone, and he sprint- 
ing away much faster than the renowned Tarn when 
he fled from the pursuing warlocks. Just then some- 
thing' cold and wet struck against my hand; with a jump 
I turned and then something warm and soft rubbed up 
against me. By the next flash I saw the ghostly white 
figures were all — sheep ; they had wandered in 
through the open door from the neighboring pas- 
ture, and being attracted by the sound of our voices, 
were coming to investigate. 

When I got back to Alice with word of my discovery, 
I found hei half-fainting. But she soon revived, and 
as we sat there in the darkness, with the rain pouring 
without, and the wind shrieking around the old house, 
I told her the thought that had been in my mind for so 
long. I don't know what I said or how I said it, but 
I did say it, somehow. As I ended, I took her hand in 
mine, and she did not draw it away. 

The rain having ceased we went outside, hearing 
voices coming towards us ;presently we saw Henry and 
the others hurrying our way. Henry's hand was on 
Pete's collar. 

"Well, there you are. Pete swore to me that he 
distinctly saw the devil with his horns and all other 
paraphernalia, take you in his arms and fly away with 
you; that he went to }?our assistance, but His Majesty 
came very near making away with him too, leaving 
him minus the sleeve of his coat." 



290 University Magazine 

Now, Pete on going- through the door had torn off 
this sleeve, where I afterwards found it, but I didn't 
say so. And strange to say, I could not feel angry 
with him for his desertion, although I knew I ought to 
be. 

"Well we haven't caught a thing," said our host;"I 
don't understand it, we caught 'em right and left last 
week; in fact a very 'Unsuccessful 'Possum-hunt.' 

I thought to myself, now that depends on the point of 
view, my friend; we didn't catch a 'possum, but, you 
ask the future Mrs. John Campbell what my opinion is 
of 'possum-hunting in general, and uf this one in par- 
ticular, and you'll find that my views and yours do not 
exactly coincide. 

Claude Baker Denson, Jr., '99. 



COL. WILLIAM HOLLAND THOMAS. 



William Holland Thomas was born in Haywood 
county, on Pidgeon river on the 5th of February, 1805. 
He was a son of Richard Thomas, who came to North 
Carolina about 1803 from Virginia. His mother was 
Temperance Calvert (of Maryland), lineally descended 
from a brother of Lord Baltimore. His paternal 
grandmother was a Strother of Virginia, a sister of 
•President ^achary Taylor's mother. His relationship 
to President Taylor was traced up by him and during 
Taylor's short term as President Col. Thomas alwa}*s 
had the entree to the mansion and was a welcome 
guest. 

Richard Thomas came to North Carolina with John 
and George Strother, his first cousins. He was 
drowned iii a stream in Northern Georgia, where he 
had gone on business, some months before his only 
child, the subject of this sketch, was born. 

Mrs. Temperance Thomas was a women of strong na- 
tive intellect, wonderful energy and was inspired by 
the sole object in life of advancing* her boy. 

Col. William H. Thomas started life when he was 
fifteen years old, as a clerk in a store at Qualla Town, 
Jackson county, for the celebrated Congressman Felix 
Walker, who was the author of the expression "talk- 
ing for Buncombe." Felix Walker's principal store 
was located at Waynesville and young* Thomas went 
to the branch store, with Walker's brother, agreeing* 



292 University Magazine 

to work three years for one hundred dollars and board 
and clothing-, but the profits of the Qualla Town store 
were applied to meet the losses of that at Waynesville, 
and the young- clerk at the end of his term of service 
was compelled to accept Walker's law-books, now in 
the possession of his son, in place of the hundred dol- 
lars. 

Meantime } 7 oung Thomas had developed marked ap- 
titude for business, and his mother agreed to sell a 
tract of land owned by her to furnish capital to start 
him, as a merchant. Within about ten years he was 
running three stores in the Cherokee Country, at 
Scott's Creek, Qualla town and Fort Butler (where 
Murphy is now located). In 1837 he had opened two 
others, one at Fort Montgomery, (now Ruffinsville), 
and the other at Calhoun (now Charleston) Tennessee. 
In his boyhood he became a great favorite of Yon- 
aguska ^Drowning- Bear), who was the head chief of 
the Uppertown Indians. Yonag-uska had the Chero- 
kees to adopt Thomas into the tribe, by a decree of 
the council. From that time he was the adviser in all 
of the business of the tribe, and was soon declared to 
be their head-chief. 

Before the end of Gen. Jackson's second term, in the 
year 1836, Col. Thomas went to ashington to estab- 
lish the claim to a fund due from the g-overnment, to 
those Cherokees who wished to remain in North Car- 
olina, and to get the consent of the government that 
they should remain without surrendering- their claim 
to the fund. Col. Thomas presented to President 
Jackson a letter of introduction from Col. Robert Love 



Col. William Holland Thomas 293 

of Haywood county, an old revolutionary hero, who 
had been Jackson's friend, when he first migrated t© 
East Tennessee, and who had won Old Hickory's fa- 
vor by giving" him every vote in Haywood county, as a 
candidate for the Presidency. Thomas never failed 
during- the remainder of Jackson's term, to get a re- 
spectful hearing upon the business which took him to 
the Capitol. 

So deeply did Col. Thomas become interested in the 
cause of the Indians, that he spent much of his time in 
Washington between 1836 and 1840 and all of the time 
from 1841 till 1848. But notwithstanding his absence 
such was his executive capacity that he conducted 
through agents a large and lucrative business 
in North Carolina and continued to increase his 
wealth. 

On his return to the State in 1848 Col. Thomas be- 
came a candidate for the State Senate and was elected 
every two years thereafter until 1862. Meantime he 
served as a delegate from Jackson county to the Seces- 
sion Convention of 1861 being elected while discharg- 
ing his legislative duties in Raleigh. 

In 1862 Col. Thomas was authorized by President 
Davis to raise a Legion for Service in the Confederate 
Army. He recruited under this authority and had 
mustered into service fourteen companies of white in- 
fantry and four companies of infantry composed of 
Cherokees. He raised also four companies of cavalry, 
one company of Engineers and one of Artillery. When 
East Tennessee was evacuated in the winter of 1863, 
most of the white companies of infantry went under 



294 University Magazine 

Lieutenant-Colonel James R. Love, Lieutenant-Col- 
onel McKawee and Major String-field to Western Vir- 
ginia and fought under Breckenridge in 1864. Col. 
Thomas with the residue of his command crossed over 
into North Carolina and protected all of the State bor- 
der south of Madison county. 

No man in the State showed his devotion to the 
cause by either sacrifice of time or money or the risk 
of his life more cheerfully than did Col. Thomas. 

During" his long - term of service in the legislature 
Col. Thomas had procured donations of Cherokee lands 
to build turnpike roads, which permeated every sec- 
tion of the State south of the Pidgeon river, and which 
were a monument to his memory. But his greatest 
service as a legislator, was in forcing- the adoption of 
the amendment to the charter of the Western North 
Carolina Railroad Company, requiring- the building- of 
the Ducktown, afterwards the Murphy, branch. 

In 1858 Col. Thomas was happily married to Sarah 
J. Love, the oldest daughter of Col. James R. Love, a 
leading- citizen of Haywood county and a grand-daugh- 
ter of Col. Robert Love. 

His ardent devotion to the cause of the Confederacy 
induced him to accept service, which at his time of life 
was too arduous, and his health gave way under the 
great strain upon both mind and body. 

He was one of the most remarkable men the State 
has produced. Few men have done more either for 
their State or for their fellow-men, than did Col. 
Thomas. 

His home was at Stekoah, the location of the Indian- 



Col. William Holland Thomas 295 

town destroyed by Gen. Rutherford, on the banks of 
the Tuckaseege. Mrs. Thomas died before her hus- 
band, but he left surviving 1 him two sons*, William H. 
Thomas, Jr. and James R. Thomas and a daughter, 
Sallie L/ove Thomas, who is the wife of Judge Alphon- 
so C. Averv of Burke county. 

*Since deceased. 



North Carolina University Magazine. 



PUBLISHED SIX TIMES DURING THE COLLEGE YEAR BY 
THE DIALECTIC AND PHILANTHROPIC LITERARY SOCIETIES. 



Old series, vol. xxix. no. 5— -hay, im New series, vol. xvi. 

PRICE $1.50 PFR YEAR - _- - - 25 GEN TS PER CO PY. 

TTtaes Bo&rd of Editors 
WILLIAM SIDNEY WILSON, '99, Editor-in-Chief, Di. 

Henry Mauger London, '99, Managing Editor, Di. 

William Stanley Bernard, '00, Phi. 

Claude Baker Denson, Jr., '99, Phi. 

Alonzo Enoch Cates, '00, Di. 

William Frank Bryan, '00, Phi. 

Francis Moore Osborne, '99, Di. 
WILLIAM EDWARD COX, '99, Business Manager, Phi. 



All literary communications should be addressed to the Editor- 
in-Chief. All business matters to the Business Manager. 
Entered at the Chapel Hill Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter. 



The Editor's Desk. 

General It must be gratifying" to the friends of 
Progress, the University to note the conditions 
now obtaining- in our life. We have observed the af- 
fairs of the Institution somewhat closely for four years, 
and though this whole period has been a time of steady 
advancement, we feel safe in saying- that the colleg-iate 



The Editor's Desk 297 

year just drawing- to a close has been a year of greater 
growth and more general success than any other of the 
four. Great progress has been made along - all lines. 

The number of students in attendance has been un- 
usually large ; the Senior class, numbering - fifty-seven, 
is the largest since 1860; the moral atmosphere gener- 
ally has been free from the petty annoyances common 
to college life, and on the whole faithful and efficient 
work has been done. Unusual interest has been man- 
ifested in the work of the Literary Societies, and as 
the crowning result of this activity the Georgia-Caro- 
lina debate has been won, and arrangements have been 
completed establishing a yearly inter-collegiate debate 
with Vanderbilt University, and a better and more 
equitable system of selecting our representative debat- 
ers has been inaugurated, namely, by competition, in- 
stead of by election. 

In athletics the University has made an enviable 
record. Last fall our foot-ball team won the champion- 
ship of the South, and this spring our base-ball team 
is making a fine showing. Furthermore, quite a num- 
ber of students are availing themselves of the opportu- 
nities for physical development offered by the track 
team and general gymnasium work. 

During the year there has also been great material 
progress. A sum of money to be used in establishing 
an adequate water supply has been obtained from the 
State, and through the munificence of Col. J. S. Carr 
a new and commodious building is soon to be erect- 
ed and fitted up for dormitories. Sufficient funds 
have also been secured to erect the walls and cover the 



298 University Magazine 

Alumni building. Work on this structure will prob- 
ably be resumed in May. 

Thus we see that in spite of all obstacles, the Uni- 
versity is entering - upon an era of more general success 
and greater usefulness to the State than ever before. 



^d:> k frm 



Our Since many of the Colleges and Uaiver- 

Exchanges. sities, whose publications are on our 
exchange list, will close their sessions before the June 
issue of the MAGAZINE appears, we think it well in ad- 
vance to thank the Exchange Editors, one and all, for the 
kindly criticisms they have given us. We assure them 
that their criticisms, though often times pointing out 
our shortcomings, have been just, and that we appre- 
ciate them and have tried to profit thereby. And if 
the criticisms of our Ex-man have in the least assisted 
any brother or sister Editor in making improvements 
along any line, then we feel that the end has been ac- 
complished for which this department was instituted. 



Book Notices. 



A GEOGRAPHICAL 

CATECHISM 

To assist those who have neither Maps nor Gazetteers 

To Read 
NEWS-PAPERS, HISTORY, or TRAVELS, 
With as much of 
The Science of ASTRONOMY, and the Doctrine of 

the AIR, 
As is judged sufficient for the PARMER, who wishes 
to understand something- of 
The WORKS of GOD, around him; 
And for the studious YOUTH, who have or have not a 
prospect of further 

prosecuting- those SUBLIME SCIENCES. 

By HENRY PATTILLO, A. M., Granville. 

The works of the Lord are great, soug-ht out of all 

them that have pleasure therein. Psalmist. 

Lord how manifold are thy works! In wisdom hast 

thou made them all. 
Sun, Moon and Stars, praise ye the Lord, 
Forever sing-ing\as they shine, 
"The hand that made us is divine." Addison. 



HALIFAX : Printed by ABRAHAM HODGE. 
M,DCC,XCVL 



300 University Magazine 

The above is an exact copy of the title of a rare old 
book that I have recently found iu the University 
Historical Library. 

In this day of well bound and beautifully illustrated 
school-books, Patillo's Geographical Catechism is of 
great interest. It is a paper-back book of 62 pages 
without a single map or illustration and is, as its name 
implies, written in the question and answer style. 

As one after another of the facts of geography and 
astronomy are brought out, the author endeavors 
to give a moral effect to his teaching and to show the 
relation between the sciences and the goodness of God. 

In his preface the author. gives as reasons for writing 
the book, — "to smooth the way to the study of geo- 
graphy that as news-papers are generally 

circulated among us there must be many honest farmers 
and their families who must be ignorant of many coun- 
tries, towns, rivers and seas mentioned in them, ...... 

I judged it a duty I owed my creator to attempt to lead 
common readers to some just conception of the divine 
works." His last reason showed good business sense 
and was of a piece with modern literary ambition, — "I 
hope my book will bring me in a few dollars which will 
be welcome guests when they arrive." After stating 
that his book will teach something of Astronomy, and 
making a pedantic plea for its study, his "Preface" 
closes thus: 

"Farewell, courteous reader! My best wishes at- 
tend you through my book; through life, death and the 
whole of your existence." Certainlv this is a benedic- 
tion seldom given by modern authors. 



Book Notices 301 

The author treats in order the different natural 
divisions of land and water, latitude and longitude, the 
poles, meridians, sun, moon, stars, comets, the 
continents, and the political divisions of the globe. 
A few extracts may interest the reader. 
"Mountains are the sources of fountains and rivers, 
the boundaries of nations and frequently their 
best defence; the collectors and condensors 
of clouds and vapors, and checks and barriers 
of storms. They beautifully variagate the 
scene; strike the beholder with awe, and enter- 
tain his eye with their majestic glory " 

"The air is the medium of breathing It is 

the instrument of conveying sounds , of 

speaking comfort to the distressed; and of 
praying to and praising God. Fires cannot ex- 
ist without air, and on it pumps and other useful 

engines depend It turns thousands of 

mills every day and all bellows have their use 
from it." To this statement Mr. Pattillo's 
imaginary pupil makes a long reply from which I 
quote. 

"I thank you, Sir; I shall think more of the air than 
I ever have, study its properties and adore its 

Creator " 

In discussing "Comets" I find: 

"No part of God's works astonish me more than the 
wisdom, foreknowledge and art of the Deity in 
throwing from his creating hand 40 enormous 
globes whose paths oppose each other, in every 
direction, without the rapid fiery comet once 
4 



302 University Magazine 

touching" a single planet. Adore ye sons of men, 
and in humble gratitude acknow ledge the power, 
wisdom and goodness of God! Make peace with 
him while thou art in the way; for he is as gra- 
cious to returning penitents, as he will be ter- 
rible to the sinner in his crimes." 
The treatment of the "Moons"begins: 
Question. But what are we to think of moons? 
Answer. The moons you know are all made of 
green cheese and fit for nothing- but mites to 
live in. 
Question. You make merry sir, with my ignorance; 

but still my question is unanswered. 
Then follows a long- answer that entirely satisfies 
and sanctifies the young- inquirer. 

The subject of Astronomy is now dropped and the 
study of Geography resumed, with the observation 
that althoug-h ours is the smallest planet still 

"It has one thing to glory in above all the creation 
of God. It is that great gospel truth, 'God so 
loved the world, that he gave his only begotten 
son, that whosoever believeth in him should not 
perish but have everlasting life.' A world thus 
redeemed is well worth our notice. We return 

then to the study of Geography " 

Each country is taken up in turn and its divisions, 
rivers, cities, etc. are mentioned in an unattractive 
manner that certainty would not "smooth the way to 
the study of Geography" for the modern pupil. 

In the description of Asia there occurs the follow- 
ing: 

"Here the human race was first propagated after 



Book Notices 303 

the deluge Here the Almighty gave to a 

chosen people, a divine law and preserved among 
them that good foundation of all truth — the 
unity of the Divine Being. In Asia the Son of 
God became incarnate, lived, suffered, died and 
rose again, and propagated the Christian relig- 
ion." Then follows a long description of the 
continent. 
Our country is treated with evident pride: "We 
come in the last place to the freest, happiest, 

most plentiful part of the globe, a land in 

all its youthful vigor, undebilitated by the lux- 
ury, vice and old age of eastern nations . . . . in 
which religion is unrestrained, morality in re- 
pute, education promoted, marriage honorable, 

and age reverenced, the United States, 

and the spot you stand on makes a part of 
it. 
A two-page account of its early settlement and suc- 
cessful struggle for independence contains a high 
sounding tribute to George Washington pointed out by 
heaven "as the instrument by whom it would save his 
country." 

Prom the paragraph on North Carolina, the follow- 
ing lines will sound well to all lovers of our State Uni- 
versity: 

"A University is established by act of Assembly in 

Orange County with liberal appointments 

What can more loudly call for the prayers of all 
good people, than that God's blessing may re- 
side on our principal seat of learning, from 



304 University Magazine 

which fountain are t© flow those streams that 
must poison, or purify and nourish our country. 
Its short progress has been rapid; may its suc- 
cess be glorious!" 
The closing - sentence in the book reads: 
"May piety, virtue, honour, truth and justice in- 
crease; and Jet all the people say, Amen." 
The book is well written and no doubt among the 
very best of that day. Although there is too little of 
geography and too much of the non-essential of astron- 
omy, still there is much to commend in the patriotism 
and religious ardor of its author. 

Rev. Henry Pattillo, born in Scotland of pious par- 
ents, came to this country when a young- man, studied 
under Rev. Samuel Davies of Hanover Presbytery, 
Va., and entered the Presbyterian ministry in 1758. 
For many years he was the pastor of E}n© and Haw- 
fields congregations. For twelve years, in addition to 
his duties as minister, he conducted a classical school 
in Granville Count} 7 . In addition to his ''Geograph- 
ical Catechism" he published a sermon on the death of 
Georg-e Washing-ton, and a book containing* three ser- 
mons, — "Divisions among- Christians, " "The Necess- 
ity of Reg-eneration," "The Scripture Doctrine of 
Election." 



Exchanges. 



Wm. S. Bernard, Editor. 

Be it far from us to fail to note and profit by a just 
criticism. We have often revolved the question wheth- 
er it would be good taste for the Exchang-e Editor to 
criticise the contents of his own magazine. At pres- 
ent he inclines to a negative decision. Yet there can 
be no impropriety in calling- the attention of the official 
and non-official contributors to the University Mag- 
azine to certain strictures passed upon it by the ex- 
change Editor of The Converse Concept, March issue. 
They are just and tempered with charity. 

Would we could say the same for all, even ourselves. 
Is it that the thought of impending - examinations has 
ruffled the feathers of the placid bird of Athene? The 
Exchange department is no arena for crimination and 
recrimination, and we deprecate the caustic, even bit- 
ter retorts which some of our fraternity have not felt 
it their duty to repress. If some young - sprig- with 
whom spring elections have honored the sacred chair 
feels ambitious to become a Scotch Reviewer and pro- 
ceeds forthwith to make and unmake poets, why let him 
(or her,) sling his ink. He will only succeed in black- 
ening- his own shirt front. Why, brother Hamlet, 
should your dignified magazine fail from its usual calm 
demeanor because, of the effusive sputteringfs of 
a "criticling"? We have noted the general excel- 



306 University Magazine 

lence, the fairness, the modest bearing- of the Mt. St. 
Joseph Collegian and regret that it has allowed itself 
to be drawn into an undignified "Scrap". And there 
are others. 

Will ye, who so glibly and dogmatically assert that 
this magazine has not enough verse, that not enough 
fiction, this an overload of history, that a groaning bur- 
den of "heavy stuff", another a paucity of editorial 
(for ye all sing one monotonous tune) — will ye wise 
Jeffreys deign to formulate your code of rules that we 
nevices may no longer err? Or rather has not each 
magazine its own ideals and a right to pursue whatever 
specialty the spirit and traditions of its University or 
School may render incumbent and appropriate? If it 
has, then shut up and cease the howl for verse! verse! 
fiction! fiction! "Give us more verse and fiction! 
From such verse and such fiction as is mostly in evi- 
dence, O Domine Deus, nunc liber es me. The Forum 
is not Munsey, nor is the Atlantic Monthly, Puck. 
Sach represents its own undisputed and indisputable 
idea. When you, whoever you may be, have readable 
verse or readable fiction, publish it by all means, if you 
wish to. If you have not, pray have mercy on the ma- 
jority who would rather be bored by the much damned 
"heav} 7 article", which may at least impart a grain of 
thought or information. At least be discriminating 
enough to recognize that a magazine may have a policy 
and ideals, and does not care to pander to so called 
general interest to win taffy from your facile pen. It 
may feel that its mission and duty is not alone to 
please. 



Exchang es 307 

Bearing" upon this same question of a magazine's 
privilege to pursue its own policy, free from the nag- 
ging- of purposeless critics, is this: Is it g'ood taste for 
a college monthly, devoted chiefly to literature, to dis- 
cuss in a way wholly local a local matter, when that 
matter is a scandal in the student body of its own col- 
lege? From two of our exchanges it appears that 
"cribbing" obtains to a deplorable degree in certain stra- 
ta of their respective institutions. Now there is no room 
for cavil at an editorial that deals broadly and gener- 
ally with the vicious crime. But should the editorial 
take the form of a red-hot lecture intended only for 
the ears and consciences of the immediate family? 
Would not class action be a better way of dealing with 
the shameful conduct? However, we are only concern- 
ed with the attitude of the magazine. It seems to us- 
not dogmatically speaking- that when our literary 
magazines handle such unfortunate incidents, they 
should give as little publicity as possible to actual and 
particular cases, should aim at the general fault and 
not the immediate offenders. There is an unsavory 
taste left in the mouth by lines which have been writ- 
ten, and the outside college world feels that it is in 
possession of secrets to which it has no right. 

A ivOVE NOTE. 



Dear heart, the Night is coming- with its shadows- 

The loveless, dreamless Night. 
The snow drifts silent o'er the ghostly meadows: 

The hills are white. 



308 University Magazine 

And from this casement, while the Night is falling - , 

Afar your face I view, 
And in the dark my soul is calling — calling, 

Dear heart, to you. 

Where are your steps? In the gardens glad with flowers- 

By starred and sun-kissed streams. 
Where lilies lean, and roses tell the hours, 

Sweet with dreams? 

Or, walk you now, as your Love walks, weary 

And lost to love and grace, 
Where all the world is desolate and dreary 

For one dear face? 

I know not, sweet! I only know I love you j 

As darkness loves the light ; 
And if God arches radiant skies above you, 

Mine be the Night. 

For Night is Light, for all the darkness falling, 

If I can dream love true. 
So, in the Light my soul is calling — calling, 

Dear heart, to you ! 

F. L. Stanton. 



Alumni Notes. 



H. M. LONDON. W. F. BRYAN. 

W. G. Haywood, '98, is assistant chemist in the Agricultural De- 
partment at Raleigh, N. C. 

Calvert Rogers De3 r , '98, is in the insurance business in Norfolk, 
Virginia. 

W. W. Davies, Law, '93, is a prominent attorney in Atlanta, Ga. 

Michael Hoke, '93, Captain of the '92 foot ball team, is one of the 
most prominent physicians of Atlanta, Ga. 

The school at Monroe, of which J. G. McCormick, '98, is princi- 
pal, is in a most nourishing condition, having about 100 pupils. 

James Daniel Parker, '98, Law '99, is editor of a paper in Smith- 
field, N. C, in addition to his practice of law. 

Rev. F. Hubbard Argo is in the Episcopal ministry with a parish 
at Rock Ledge, Pennsylvania. 

P. B. Manning, '86, who is practicing law m Wilmington, N. C, 
is receiver of a Building and Loan Association in that city. 

Dr. Kemp P. Battle celebrates in June the 50th anniversary of his 
graduation at the University. 

Locke Craige, '80, delivers the annual address at the closing exer- 
cises of Jackson County High School on May 12th next. 

Robt. Strange, D.D., '79, rector of St. James Episcopal church at 
"Wilmington, and his wife sailed for Europe on the 29th of April. 

Judge Elder Little, ex- '98, is principal of an Academy in Meck- 
lenburg County. 

Joe Eli Alexander, '95, late private secretary to Governor Russell 
is now a lawyer in Winston, N. C. We notice that he has re- 
cently appeared in an important case before the Supreme Court of 
this State. 

The health of Peter H. Eley, of Williston, Tenn., who was pre- 



310 University Magazine 

vented by sickness from graduating with '98, is sufficiently restor- 
ed for him to undertake the duties of a school. We hope to see him 
back at the University next year. 

Col. R. B. Creecy, '35, has published in the Elizabeth City Econo- 
mist an account of the appropriating by Thos. H. Benton of the 
money of a fellow-student, taken from the recollections of Governor 
Branch, '01, and others. Col. Creecy does not believe that Benton 
could have offered the reported insult to the committee of the Phi- 
lanthropic Society who thirty years after his expulsion announced 
to him his restoration to membership. After the time of the re- 
ported insult Col. Creecy wrote to Benton asking a contribution to 
the library and received a very kind letter and a donation of $20.00. 

MARRIAGES. 

At Salisbury, N. C, April 26th, in the Methodist church, Miss 
Margaret Overman and Mr, Edwin Clark Gregory, '96, Eaw '99. 

RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT. 

Philanthropic Hali,, 

April 22, 1899. 

Whereas, God in His divine wisdom and power has seen fit to re- 
move from our midst our friend and fellow member, C. M. Kennedy, 
therefore be it 

Resolved I, That while bowing in humble submission to the will 
our God, we, the members of the Philanthropic Society, cannot but 
lament our bereavement. 

Resolved II, That we offer our sincere and heartfelt sympathy to 
the family and friends of the deceased ; and while we would not in- 
trude upon the sanctity of domestic grief, we would point them to 
that Dearer Friend from whom alone the crushed heart can derive 
consolation. 

Resolved III, That these resolutions be placed upon the minutes 
of our Society, that a copy be sent to the sorrowing family and also 
that a copy be sent to the University Magazine, to The Tar Heel 
and to the Goldsboro Argus with a request to publish. 

E. D. BkoadhurST ) 

W. F. Bryan [■ Committee. 

H. P. Harding ) 



College Record. 



Commencement will soon be upon us. 

Ex-Judge H. G. Connor of Wilson will deliver the anaual address 
before the Law Class on Monday of Commencement week. 

At the March meeting of the Shakespeare Club papers were read 
by Miss Bessie Whitaker, Mr. J. W. Canada and by Dr. Hume, the 
president of the Club. The papers were in connection with the 
study of "As You Lake It" and were of great interest. 

Plans for the Carr building have been made and the work will be- 
gin within a few weeks. This building is to cost $15,000 — a gift of 
that generous and loyal alumnus, Col. J. S. Carr. 

Mr. Geo. M. McKie, instructor in Expression in the University, 
has been with us for some time and is doing excellent work in his 
department. 

At the March meeting of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 
the following papers were read — "The Relation Between Forestry 
and Geology in N. C." by Prof. Cobb, "Geological Conditions Favor- 
able to Waterpower in N. C." by Prof. Holmes and "Mitchellite, a 
new variety of Chromate" by Dr. Pratt. At the April Meeting pa- 
pers were read by Prof. Cain on "The Early History of Mathemat- 
ics" and by Prof. Gore on "Wireless Telegraphy." 

Mr. H. M. London has been elected to succeed Mr. M. Bellamy, 
Jr. as Editor-in-Chief of "The Tar Heel." 

Arrangements have been made by the Di and Phi Societies for 
holding a series of debates with the University of Vanderbilt. It 
is hoped also, as will probably be the case, that the arrangements 
with Georgia will be renewed. 

The Chapel Hill Choral Society gave its second concert of the 
season in Gerrard Hall on Friday, Ma} r 5th. 

Dr. J. H. Pratt and bride have moved into the house formerly oc- 
cupied by Dr. Ball. 

At the meeting of the Philogical Club on April 25th papers were 
read by Dr. Hume, Prof. Harrington and Dr. Linscott. 

The Spring Semi-annual Inter-Society debate, held in the Phi 
Hall on Friday evening, April 28th, resulted in a victory for the 
Di. The victorious debaters were Messrs. Thompson, '01, and 
Kluttz, '02. 



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North Carolina University Magazine. 

Old series, vol. mi no. 6-~«, m New series, vol m. 



THE UNIVERSITY AND THE PUBLIC SCHOOL 

SYSTEM OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Part II. 



In 1817 Judge Murphey brought before the Legisla- 
ture his plan for the establishment of public schools in 
North Carolina. As has been shown this plan was 
not adopted because in its beneficent purpose it under- 
took to do too much at once. For the eight years fol- 
lowing nothing of note was done in our State for pub- 
lic education. In 1825 the question was revived and a 
bill was introduced for the education of the poor. The 
prime mover in this undertaking was Bartlett Yancey 
(U. N. C. Class of 1804), formerly one of Murphey's 
pupils and at that time Speaker of the Senate. 

Yancey's work began with the accumulation ©f a 
"literary fund." The people of the State were averse 
to a direct tax for public schools and so Yancey went 
to work to collect together the "parings of the treas- 
ury" as he styled it. This fund consisted of — 
1 



313 University Magazine 

The dividends from stock in the banks of Newbern 
and Cape Fear; dividends from stock in the Cape Fear 
Navigation Company, the Roanoke Navigation Com- 
pany and the Clubfoot & Harlow Creek Canal Com- 
pany; taxes on licenses to retail liquor dealers and auc- 
tioneers; an unexpended balance of the agricultural 
fund; money paid State for entries of vacant lands;the 
proceeds from sales of unappropriated swamp lands and 
$21,090 to be paid as soon as the United States refund- 
ed that amount which had been paid out by the State 
to the Cherokee Indians. 

In Jan., 1827 the literary board which had charge of 
this fund consisted of Gov. Hutchins G. Burton(U. N. 
C. Class of 1795), John Lewis Taylor, Chief Justice 
James Iredell (U. N. C. Class of, 1807;, Speaker of 
the House, Bartlet Yancey, Speaker of the Senate (U. 
N. C. Class of 1804) and John Haywood, Treasurer. 

In 1836 the fund was estimated at $242,045 which 
was largely increased by the distribution of surplus 
revenue by the Federal Government, $300, 000 of which 
went to the Bank of Cape Fear and $200,000 for drain- 
ing swamp lands of the State. Both of these invest- 
ments were for the benefit of the literary fund. The 
fund rapidly increased and in November 1840 amount- 
ed to $2,241,480. 

When the literary fund was yet small Rev. Joseph 
Caldwell, President of the University, advocated in a 
series of published letters that the income from this 
money should be expended for the establishment of 
schools for teachers. The need of such a system was 
much felt. 



The University and the Public Schools 314 

The result of the effort made at the session of our 
Legislature in 1838-1839 was "An act to divide the 
counties into school districts etc." The county vot- 
ing - for schools should be taxed $20 for each district 
and this sum was to be supplemented by double that 
amount from the Literary Fund. Tyrell, Richmond 
and Macon counties took advantage of this act. • 

An act passed in 1840 "for the establishment and 
better regulation of common schools" marked the real 
beginning of the system in North Carolina. It was 
reported to the Legislature by Jonathan Worth from 
the joint committee on education of which Senator 
Mangum (U. N. C. 1815) was chairman for the Sen- 
ate and W. N. H. Smith chairman for the House. 
This plan was largely dominated by the ideas in the 
plan submitted by Judge Murphey in 1817. The 
"Board of Literature" could only see to the manage- 
ment and investment of the fund and hence came to be 
only a committee on finance. There was no definite 
system by which the schools of different counties could 
be held responsible to some experienced overseer and 
so the radical defects of the system were soon seen and 
changes were repeatedly urged on the Assembly. The 
general complaint was that a great deal of money was 
expended by the State and very poor results were to 
be seen. 

Governor Manly saw that the trouble was in the 
lack of organization and efficient supervision by the 
State and in a strong message he recommended the 
appointment of a general superintendent of common 
schools for the State. 



315 University Magazine 

Under such pressure as this from the Governor, the 
literary board, and other officials, progress was made 
toward reform. In 1849 the appointment of county 
superintendents at a salary of $250 each was author- 
ized. 

Continued agitation brought about in 1852 the lay- 
ing of the corner stone of the best system of common 
schools in the South before the war. This was in the 
form of an "Act to provide for the appointment of a 
superintendent of common schools and for other pur- 
poses. " 

After securing a tiew and improved act by which to 
regulate the school system and to secure the best re- 
sults for the large amount of money expended, and af- 
ter providing for a superintendent came the still more 
difficult task of finding the proper man to fill the of- 
fice. Dr. Calvin H. Wiley (Class of 1840) was then a 
member of the Legislature from Guilford county. .He 
was a Whig in politics and a lawyer by profession, 
while the Legislature was Democratic. But the activ- 
ity displa}'ed by him in advancing the interests of the 
schools pointed him out as the man for the place. He 
was elected by a large majority without the slightest 
solicitation on his part, December, 1852 and entered 
upon his duties January 1, 1853. 

The duties of this office were numerous and trying. 
In the spring of 1853, Dr. Wiley traveled in a buggy 
from the middle part of the State to Currituck county 
and in the fall to Cherokee county, thus making- a tour 
from the farthest eastern to the farthest western coun- 
ty of the State. This trip while for the help of the 
schools was taken at his own expense. 



The University and the Public Schools 316 

The story of Dr. Wiley's labors is a long - and inter- 
esting- one. By the end of nine years North Carolina 
had organized her scattered schools into the best sys- 
tem of common schools in the South and North Caroli- 
na was acknowledged to be the banner state of the 
South in colleges, academies and schools. Improve- 
ments continued to be made but soon the Civil War in- 
terrupted this regular course of progress. 

Throughout the war the statesmen of North Caroli- 
na took a firm stand for the protection of the schools. 
A bill to the effect that no school taxes should be al- 
lowed during the war was opposed by such men as 
Governors Morehead, Ellis and the immortal Vance. 
The funds were protected and the schools went on in 
many places throughout the war. Then followed the 
dark days of reconstruction and in general ruin the 
schools went down. 

Such was the work of University men under the old 
regime. Another chapter is needed to show the reor- 
ganization of our schools since the loss of the literary 
fund by war and repudiation of bonds. 

The supremest need of the State is still an adequate 
system of common schools. All the forces of the Uni- 
versity have worked, are working and shall everxvork 
to that end. 

F. M. Osborne, '99. 



ELECTION OF UNITED STATES SENATORS. 



[This is the second speech on the negative, following Mr. J. E. 
Tison of Georgia, delivered by Mr. T. C. Bowie of North Carolina, 
in the Inter-Collegiate Debate between the University of Geor- 
gia and the University of North Carolina, held at Athens, Ga., 
March 17, 1899, on the query, "Resolved, That United States Sen- 
ators should be elected by the direct vote of the people." Time 
allowed each speaker, thirty minutes. The speech delivered by 
Mr. E. D. Broadhurst of North Carolina a ppeared in the May issue 
of the Magazine.— Ed.] 

My colleague has shown you that the present mode 
of electing; U. S. Senators is in harmony with our sys- 
tem of government and, that judging- it from the ex- 
perience of a hundred years, it has worked well. 

It shall be my purpose to point out to you what 
would be the effect of the proposed change. Would 
it be favorable or unfavorable to good government? 

Change does not always mean reform; and it has 
been well said by John Fiske that, "The evils that in- 
evitably flow from any fundamental change in the in- 
strument of a county are apt to be much more ser- 
ious than the evil the change is intended to remove." 

Now, let us see if this would not be the case in this 
particular instance. If we take the election of U. S. 
Senators from the legislatures what must be the nec- 
essary and only alternative for the performance of 
such an important function of state sovereignty? 

The very extent of area, as well as wide distribu- 
tion and large number of population in the great com- 



Election of Utiited States Senators 318 

monwealths that compose this government, renders it 
both impracticable and impossible for the people to 
gather together and put in nomination a Senator by di- 
rect action. Then Sirs, the choice of the Senators vir- 
tually to be made by the state convention of the party 
in power. 

Now let us compare the alternative with the present 
mode and see from the very nature of things which is 
the better of the two methods for the election of the 
men who are to protect the rights, maintain the honor 
and dignity of the states in the Federal govern- 
ment. 

You change the mode of selecting by public officers 
who are entrusted with making the laws upon which 
the financial, social and moral status of a whole com- 
monwealth depend and substitute the partisan machin- 
ery of a political convention composed of persons with 
no other responsibilities. 

Instead of a deliberate selection of the Senator by 
men chosen under strict legal provision there is to be 
practically a choice of men not chosen in the pursu- 
ance of any law. * 

Instead of a choice by men under an oath of office 
there is to be a choice by men upon whom no oath is 
imposed. 

Instead of a choice by men acting under a high sense 
of personal responsibility it will be by men who may 
vote by prox}' or even vote twice. 

Instead ojj»a choice by men of whose actions there is 
an official and accredited record there is to be a choice 
by men of whose actions no official record exists. For 



319 University Magazine 

a choice by a permanent body there must be a choice 
by a body enslaved to the behests of a party spirit 
which may last one brief day. 

Instead of a choice by a bod}? acting - b} T majorities 
there is to be substituted in the end a choice by plural- 
ities. 

For a choice by a body representing- all localities of 
a state, where different local interests are fairly rep- 
resented, you substitute an election by sheer force of 
numbers where the popular masses in great cities have 
disproportionate and undue weight. 

This is the alternative that my opponents propose 
for the appointment of the men who are to compose 
what we are fond of calling- the most august body on 
earth. Is it to be preferred to the legislature, to which 
all that is near and dear to the state is entrusted? But 
the opposition maintains that certain undue influence is 
brought to bear upon the legislature which it is un- 
able to withstand; yet does it not stand to reason that 
the same evils will operate with equal if not more ef- 
fect upon the conventions, than they do upon the legis- 
latures? And from their nature which is the better 
able to withstand them? Na}^ how much more sus- 
ceptible must the convention be to the bribes, mis- 
takes, corruption and double voting than the elect com- 
pany sifted out of a commonwealth, to whom are en- 
trusted all the sacred duties of state legislation? But 
it is said, "this is one of the reasons for not electing 
the Senators by the legislatures; that yo^i embarrass 
those already laden with care." Yet is it not a well 
known fact that responsibility is the strongest safe- 
guard of the strict performance of duty? 



Election of United States Senators 320 

It is further stated, "that our President, Vice-Pres- 
ident, Governors and other officers are nominated by 
these conventions." But Sirs, it cannot be denied that 
the character of the convention is such as I have de- 
scribed it, and the simple fact that our political 
machinery is such that it compels us to nominate our 
other officers in this manner is no reason why we 
should submit the great office of U. S. Senator to such 
subjection. 

It is further maintained by the opposition, that the 
action of the state legislature is final, while that of 
the convention is not; that the people may correct the 
mistakes of the convention. 

This statement is wholly inconsistent with the or- 
dinary experience, in popular election, for men do not 
vote, except in the most extreme cases, against candi- 
dates on account of their individual character, but be- 
cause there is an honest difference as to political con- 
victions. 

But even admitting this to be the case, note the di- 
lemma in which it places the voter. It either com- 
pels him to disfranchise himself or vote against his 
political convictions. He must either not vote at all, 
or vote for the candidate of the opposing party, who 
represents political principles diametrically opposed to 
his own. Why gentlemen, 3^011 readily see the remedy 
would be worse than the evil itself, since the mistake 
of the convention can only be corrected at the cost of 
destroyingmthe character of the state because of the 
character of the candidate. 

Now gentlemen, the next and most disastrous effect 



321 University Magazine 

of the proposed change would be to destroy the state 
as a state in national government, and hence rob the 
state of its last vestige of "states rigfhts." For pray 
tell me what voice the state has as a state in national 
affairs, save that uttered by her Senators who stand 
for the state. 

But my friendly opponent challenges me to prove 
that "the people are not the state, and that the crea- 
ture cannot rise above the creator." Upon this ques- 
tion I desire to join issue. The fallacy of his argu- 
ment lies in the confusion of sovereignty and govern- 
ment, between which there is a striking distinction, 
namely ;-while the sovereignty resides with the people, 
government is the means by which it is expressed. 

The people taken in their mere aggregate force are 
not the state. The very nature of a state itself con- 
tradicts this argument. A state "is a collection of in- 
dividuals living together in a well defined territory, 
permanently organized for the purpose of govern- 
ment." Then Sirs, the true representation of a state 
involves two fundamental principles, namely, perman- 
ent organization and proportionality both as to terri- 
tory and inhabitants. Why gentlemen, the simple fact 
that the inhabitants of each state possess peculiar 
characteristics that are different from those of every 
other state; that a Northern man differs radically 
from a Southern man; in short that man is the product 
of his environment, shows what an important part the 
soil plays in determining' the character of a state. 
Different interests also arise from the difference of the 
soil. Georgia and Maine have certain permanent in- 



Election of United States Senators 322 

terests that differ widely because of the geographic 
and climatic diversity of their soil. And when you ig- 
nore this vital principle in the representation of a state 
you have virtually destroyed the state as a state in our 
National Government, and this is exactly what the 
proposed chang-e does. 

The voice of the state is now uttered by the Legis- 
lature in which the state is represented proportionally 
both as to territory and inhabitants, each county hav- 
ing its representative, w T hether or not it has the re- 
quisite proportion of inhabitants, while the proposed 
chang-e requires ihe voice of the state to be uttered by 
the mass of its citizens, regardless of local divisions, 
removing- the political power now equally distributed 
to the great cities and centres of population. 

New York City would control the vote of the State 
of N. Y.; Boston, that of Mass.; Baltimore, that of 
Md.; Chicago, that of 111. Each little district now 
having- its just weig-ht would be outweig-hed by the 
dwellers in the great towns where the two extremes 
(great wealth and great poverty) meet and combine to 
take charg-e of the affairs of government. 

But the opposition maintains that the cities are 
greater in wealth and population, therefore they should 
have more weight in representation. That this is true 
is demonstrated by the fact, that our forefathers wise- 
ly provided that this should be taken into considera- 
tion in the distribution of the Representatives that 
compose the lower branch of our national assembly. 
And with equal ing-enuity they provided that the dis- 
tinct personnel of each state should be reg-arded in dis- 



323 University Magazine 

tributing the representation in the upper branch. And 
it is upon this and not upon the mere force of numbers 
that the representatien in the Senate is based. I ad- 
mit Sirs, that if this government was based directly up- 
on the people in their mere aggregate force of numbers, 
that the election of Senators by the people would be 
the only logical course to pursue. But I deny Sirs, that 
this is the nature of our government. It is not a un- 
ion of individuals, but a union of forty-five states with 
distinct personnels and different permanent interests — 
upon this very point hinges the controversy. My op- 
ponents maintain that this is a government based di- 
rectly upon the people in their aggregate force, hence 
the people should elect the Senators. 

We maintain that this is a government based pri- 
marily upon the states; that the people of the states, 
taken in their mere aggregate force of numbers, are 
provided for in the distribution of the Representatives 
of the Ivower House of our National Assembly, while 
the States, as such, are represented in the Senate; 
hence the Legislature, the true and legal representa- 
tive of the State, as a corporate body, should elect the 
U. S. Senators. 

Sirs, these two theories of government that we are 
advocating here to-night involve the same question 
that invoked that memorable debate in the U. S. Sen- 
ate Chamber; that called forth the severest logic and 
the most thrilling eloquence that this young republic 
has ever heard. Sirs, it is the same question that 
aroused Calhoun and Webster to their feet, to ex- 
change blows, the sparks from the encounter of whose 



Election of United States Senators 324 

swords, kindled the conflagration that devastated this 
fair Southland of ours. It was a conflict between two 
great theories of g-overnment and not of freedom and 
slavery that drenched our Southern soil in blood. And 
we are here to-night representing- these two antagon- 
istic theories of g-overnment. 

My friendly opponents occupy the same ground that 
Webster occupied, when he maintained that this gov- 
ernment was a union of individuals and not, of the 
then, twenty-four separate states. 

We occupy the impreg-nable ground of state sover- 
eignty that Calhoun did, when he held the converse of 
the position. Sirs, we are advocating the same princi- 
ples of g-overnment that our fathers foug-ht for so hero- 
ically and for which they surrendered their lives and 
their fortunes. But I see my friendly opponents pre- 
paring- to tell you, that in that mighty war-grave, where 
sleep so many of our Southern heroes, lies buried also 
the idea of "states rig-hts" and the Southern cause. 
But Sirs, I deny that such an idea is buried and lost for- 
ever. For althoug-h the superiority of the North in 
numbers and forces compelled our half-starved and 
half-clad heroes to surrender their arms and march 
home in defeat and despair, thank God the very prin- 
ciples for which they foug-ht still live! History re- 
peats itself and Senator Hoar, the champion of the 
advanced Republicans of to-day, has a spasm of consti- 
tutional learning- and honesty in his great arg-ument 
ag-ainst expansion, boasts for a Northern leader most 
inconsistently, and yet with a great truth in his anom- 
aly, says he "stands upon the same ground that Alex- 



325 University Magazine 

ander Hamilton, Dan. Webster and Chas. Sumner 
stood;" yet maintaining - that this is a government 
composed of forty-five states and not a mere aggrega- 
tion of individuals. In his speech before the New 
England Club in Charleston, S.C. last December Sen- 
ator Hoar said: -"I always delig-ht to think, as I know 
the people of S. C, delight to think, of these States of 
ours, not as a mere aggregation of individuals, but as 
beautiful personalities, moral being-s, endowed with 
moral character, capable of faith, of memoiw,of pride, 
sorrow and joy,courag , e and heroism, honor and shame. 
Their power and glory, their rig-htful place m history 
depend upon these thing's and not upon members." 
And he further adds, "That it is this that justifies the 
arrangement of the Constitution of the U.S. for equal 
representation in the upper legislative chamber, and 
explains its admirable success." 

And thus we see, that though Calhoun and that 
glorious company of witnesses both in the Senate halls 
and on the battle field, lie cold in the gTave, their 
doctrine still lives and when great issues are at stake 
the disciples of their great opponents make it their 
own. 

Then g-entlemen, we maintain that not only will the 
proposed change destroy the state, as a state, in our 
national government, but that it will obscure and blot 
out forever the last vestig-e of "states rig-hts." 

Now g-entlemen, I propose to show you that the pro- 
posed change is virtually forbidden by the text of the 
Constitution itself and should it be made in defiance of 
this provision, it would result in the overthrow of our 



Election of United States Senators 326 

National Constitution. The logic of my opponent's 
position compels them either to submit to proportional 
representation in the Senate, or repudiate the very prin- 
ciple for which they contend, namely: that this is a gov- 
ernment " by, for, and of the people." 

Because Sirs, if they give Nevada, with her 45,500 
inhabitants, two Senators, they must give New York 
as many in proportion or disfranchise more than five 
million people in the State of New York alone. But 
the Constitution provides that "no state shall be de- 
prived of its equal representation in the Senate with- 
out its consent." And when we remember how long 
and bitter was the struggle between the large and 
small states, we readily see that nothing short of a 
revolution would make the small states submit to this. 
Hence the major premise of the opposition's argument 
is contradicted by the constitution itself, since 
it has virtually forbidden proportional representation 
in the Senate, which must inevitably follow the direct 
representation of the proposed Senate. And should 
this illogical change be forced upon the states, claim- 
ing to be based upon the people, yet disfranchising more 
than half their number, the great legislative chamber, 
which has been for more than a century the admira- 
tion of all mankind would be forever gone. 

The states never agreed that there should be perpet- 
ual equality in representation in a Senate based upon 
any other mode of election. New York never agreed 
to submit forever to equality in legislation, in making 
treaties, in the appointment of great executive officers 
and the power t© punish and remove them, in declaring 



327 University Magazine 

war and making* peace with the 8000 votes of Nevada, 
when the two states are simply representative districts 
the only difference being - that the one is 150 times 
larger than the other. 

The larger states loyally submit to this to-day, be- 
cause the representation in the Seuate is based upon 
the states, as such, and not npon the force of numbers. 
But tell them that the Senate, as Hamilton and Madi- 
son drew its stately plan, is gone; tell them that it is 
no longer composed of select men, chosen, by select 
men, superior to impulse and passion, representing - the 
deliberate will and sober judgment of the people and 
they will tell you that their constitutional obligation 
is also gone and that they never agreed to submit to 
equality in representation in a Senate based directly 
upon the people. 

Then, Sirs, my opponents, in consequence of a few in- 
stances of fraud and corruption, which always have and 
always will accompany political parties, come here and 
demand a fundamental change in one of the most 
powerful instruments ever written by man; an instru- 
ment that has given us liberty and freedom — made us 
a powerful and progressive people. 

No doubt there have been a few instances where 
fraud and bribery were used in the election of the Sen- 
ator; but I challenge my opponents to show you that 
popular elections are free from corruption or to point 
to a single epoch in the history of political institutions 
where demagogues and designing men have not bathed 
their hands in the stream of political progress and 
rendered it unclean. 



Election of United States Senators 328 

Sirs, we admit the packing of the legislative caucus, 
the scandal of Quay's dealing with his puppets; but if 
the finer elements of a state legislature yield to such 
influence, how much more susceptible to this influence 
will be the delegates of a party convention, chosen to 
obev the behests of a partisan spirit. But the opposi- 
tion insists on "more rights for the people." Why 
g-entlemen there never has been since the dawn of civ- 
ilized government, a people who have surrendered so 
few of their national privileges and had so many pro- 
tected in return; who inhale an atmosphere of more ab- 
solute freedom than the American people. Yet my op- 
ponents come here demanding "more rights for the 
people." Why this is the old, old political story 
whose babbling echoes mock themselves. But when 
public enthusiasm has subsided there is always a calm 
level of public opinion, which moves beneath the storm 
that tells us that the vigor of government is essential 
to liberty, and that a dangerous ambition more often 
lurks behind the mask of an over-scrupulous zeal for 
the rights ©f the people, than a real enthusiasm for 
the efficiency of good government. And history 
teaches us that the former has been a more certain 
road to despotism than the latter and that of those men 
who have overturned republics, the greatest number 
have begun their career by paying an obsequious court 
to the people — beginning as demagogues and ending as 
tyrants. 

Then Sirs, in conclusion I will say that this change 
would alter the nature of . our government. It would 
no longer be "an indestructible union of indestructible 
2 



329 University Magazine 

states" but a mere league, or confederacy. And if car- 
ried to its logical conclusion it will result in the sub- 
stitution of an absolute democracy for our representa- 
tive government. And since there can be no progress 
without restraint, civilized society and absolute democ- 
racy cannot walk hand in hand. 

Then Sirs, if the proposed change is adopted and 
carried to its logical conclusion it will result in the 
overthrow of the whole scheme of our national Consti- 
tution as designed and adopted by our forefathers. 

The Constitution is our great bulwark against agi- 
tation. It is the defense of American civilization — the 
foundation upon which our progress and prosperity is 
based. It is the hope of the future of this republic — 
the "Ark of the Covenant" of liberty. 

Disease and epidemic may sweep over the country 
and be forgotten; floods may rush down our beautiful 
and fertile valleys, but the water will subside and la- 
bor will restore the desolation. Cyclones may destroy, 
but industry will repair the shattered edifices. Fire 
may come and consume, but strong hearts and willing 
hands will rebuild. War and famine may find place in 
our country's history but American courage and forti- 
tude will enable us to rise above these desolating ef- 
fects. But undermine the Constitution of our country 
and that for which mankind has fought, labored and 
struggled since the world began is gone forever. E}ven 
give it a blow and civilization will stop and stagger, 
liberty will be imperiled, the progress of the American 
people will halt and this great Republic, the pride and 
envy of the world, will be lost among the wreck of na- 
tions and its triumphs and greatness will be among the 
glories of the past. 



IMPRESSIONS OF A SOJOURNER IN THE 
HILL COUNTRY. 



It is the last hour of day. In a secluded mountain 
valley the voices of the birds are hushed; the gentle 
sound of falling- waters alone is heard; the long- shad- 
ows have enveloped the cabins of the mountaineers. 
But thoug-h all around is shadow, the God of Day is 
not yet fled. Lift up your eyes and behold how the 
red rays of the dying sun linger lovingly upon the 
distant pinnacle of the mountain chain, crowning" the 
lofty summit with an unspeakable glory. Such a 
scene is an emblem of hope for those who in life must 
walk through the valley of the shadow. Let. such not 
despair, but rather look up and behold the sun of hope 
lighting up for them the distant heights of achieve- 
ment. 

Communion with Nature among* the hills is balm 
like unto that of Gilead for the victim of distress, in 
body or in spirit. The atmosphere of the mountains is 
an atmosphere of buoyant hope. To such as know 
how to "look through Nature up to Nature's God," 
it is an atmosphere of supremest happiness. 

Passing from the general to the particular, it may 
be truly said that the seeker after health or pleasure 
will find no more delightful region in the world than 
the extreme western portion of North Carolina. 
Tourists who have travelled the world over, and have 
looked upon its grandest and most beautiful scenery 
say that in natural beauty and sublimity the mountains 



331 University Magazine 

of Western North Carolina are not only unsurpassed, 
but unequalled in the world. In the balmy balsamic 
breezes there is strength and health and life for the 
feeble and the dying-. In the grand old mountains 
whose lofty summits are now wrapped in the clouds, 
now kissed by God's sweet sun-light, and ever fanned 
by cooling breezes and lulled by the music of the mur 
muring rills tumbling down the furrowed mountain 
side, — in these mountains there is inspiration for all 
mankind. They are the "sucking breasts" of our 
good old mother State from which all may draw life 
and inspiration. Ho every one that thirsteth, thither 
go! 

During the past summer I enjoyed seeing much of 
the unsurpassed scenery of the western portion of the 
State. I had heard much, and read much, but the 
half had not been told me of the scenes on the Western 
North Carolina Railroad where, by a triumph of hu 
man ingenuity and engineering skill over seemingly 
insuperable difficulties, the railroad surmounts th 
Blue Ridge ; where one winds along the forest-clac 
sides of the mountains whose mighty domes mingl 
with the sky; where from the car window one sees 
beneath , happy valleys arrayed in garments of greeq 
and traversed by glistening streams, and above thl 
grand sentinels of the ages, — of these scenes it is un* 
necessary to speak, for the fame of them has gone ovdl 
the world. 

Scarcely less well-known is the country betweeij 
Asheville and Paint Rock, where the rushing, foaming 
French Broad is followed in its sinuous course by thl 
railroad train. 



Impressions of a Sojourner in the Hill Country 332 

The scenery on the railroad from Asheville to Mur- 
phy, in Cherokee county, is comparatively unknown 
and unappreciated. The length of railroad is one 
hundred and twenty-four miles, and there is scarcely 
a mile which does not present some new and interest- 
ing- aspect of mountain scenery. In this region tur- 
bulent streams, foaming - in rocky channels, and the 
majestic mountains combine to make the beauty of the 
scene. In this section are deep gorges, and lefty 
trestles over tiny, shining streams in the valley far 
beneath ; there are fertile and, in some instances, well- 
cultivated fields, large orchards whose trees bend un- 
der the weight of the ripe fruit, and a people who, 
though simple and unlearned, are happy and content- 
ed. A great future is surely in store for this section, 
for here nature has been prodigal with her blessings. 



During my short sojourn in the mountains I was 
particularly impressed with two aspects of mountain 
scenery — the rainbows in and out of the clouds and 
the ever-changing effects of the clouds themselves. 

It was at Gombroon, in Buncombe county, the loved 
home of North Carolina's dead Senator, Vance, where 
now the memory of him is kept fresh and fragrant, 
that I saw a rainbow which I shall never forget. 
When first I looked the bow was dim and indistinct. 
Gradually it became more clearly defined, the colors 
deepened, and the bow, set not "in the cloud, " but 
with clear air and mountains for its setting, was per- 
fect in shape and coloring and of titanic size. Span- 



333 University Magazine 

ning the blue heavens, and the great gorge beneath it, 
on the one side the bow rested on the Blue Ridge and 
on the other upon the Black Mountains. Surely such 
a rain-bow must have been seen by the entranced 
patriarch of old when he looked upon the sign and seal 
of the promise of God. As I looked the ever-changing 
hues began to pale, the beautiful arch, reaching from 
mountain range to mountain range, became more and 
more indistinct, and in a few moments the rainbow 
was gone. In its unapproachable beauty and its daz- 
zling radiance, it seemed to me that it was indeed the 
bow of the Almighty, set in the mountain where He 
dwells as a sign of promise for North Carolina. 

I was scarcely less impressed with the beauty and 
grandeur of the cloud scenery. One evening the dis- 
tant eastern mountains were kissed by the sunlight, 
and the clouds above and behind them were tinted 
with all the hues of the rainbow by the sun sinking in 
the West. The sight was beautiful and inspiring 
beyond the power of words to describe. But beauty 
was about to give place to grandeur. I turned and 
looked behind me and saw a lowering storm-cloud 
wrapping the earth in impenetrable mist, and rolling 
up the valley. Black as Erebus, in indescribable maj- 
esty, it rolled on, giving forth the low rumblings and 
mutterings which signify the coming of the storm. 
Soon the storm, thus threatened, broke in all its fury, 
and the rain descended in torrents through the dark- 
ened air. The artillery of heaven was unlimbered. 
The thunder rolled and the live lightnings flashed 
through the thick clouds. But the storm was over in 



Impressions of a Sojourner in the Hill Country 334 

quickly as it had come, and the sun again lit up the 
cloud-isles of the sky with all his glorious hues. 

Such are some of the general aspects of scenery and 
such some of the grand natural displays in the mount- 
ains of Western North Carolina, as I have feebly at- 
tempted to describe them. But such things the pen 
of no writer can describe and the brush of no painter 
depict. E)very man must see and feel for himself. 
Whitehead Kluttz, Optional. 



HAMLET WITH THE PART OF HAMLET 
LEFT OUT, 

OR 

A COMPARTIVE STUDY OF "HAMLET" AND 
"FRATRICIDE PUNISHED." 



Paradoxical as is this title, impossible as it is to 
conceive of the great tragedy of thought without the 
character which gives it its very life, we nevertheless 
find a play of Hamlet with Hamlet left out as we turn 
with curious interest to an old German play which 
carries us strangely through the incidents and atmos- 
phere of the period in Denmark depicted by Shakes- 
peare, yet leaves upon the mind a sense of the weak- 
ness of mere plot and recalls, in contrast, the marvel- 
ous power of the great dramatist. 

Perplexing are the theories as to the relation of this 
play of "Fratricide Punibhed" to the Hamlet drama of 
Shakespeare. So striking are the resemblances in 
plot that there is no room for doubt as to a connection 
existing between the two plays. For in Shakespeare's 
Hamlet the divergence, in the main outline of the story, 
from the Saxon Grammaticus drama and from Kyd's 
"Spanish Tragedy," is decidedly more marked than 
the slight variation on the play of "Fratricide Punish- 
ed." 

Did Shakespeare make use of this plot as he found it 
to construct his great tragedy or was the play of 



Hamlet with the Part of Hamlet Left Out 336 

"Fratricide Punished" a different rendering - by infer- 
ior playwrights of Shakespeare's own play? Obvi- 
ously, a comparison of exact dates as to the publishing 
of the two plays and their presentation on the stage 
would throw much light on the question; but the dates 
are lacking, conjecture as to the time of the appear- 
ance of "Fratricide Punished," ranging from 1589 to 
1710. 

Shakespeare's picture of Hamlet, deeply feeling and 
thinking while failing to act, reflecting, and lamenting 
his own misfortune, not proceeding to the duty 
which lay before him, exclaiming soon after the inter- 
view with the ghost "The time is out of joint — O curs- 
ed spite that ever I was born to set it right!" — -This 
picture is one not found in the play of "Fratricide 
Punished." The German drama reveals no Hamlet in 
the first agony ©f grief, almost on the verge of suicide, 
crying out, 

"O, that this too, too solid flesh would melt," pay- 
ing the beautiful tribute to his father: 

' 'So excellent a king 

so loving to my mother 

that he might not between the winds of heaven visit 

her face too roughly" suffering intensely the 

mortification in his mother's hasty marriage with the 
uncle murderer, exclaiming, even while discoursing 
on his own madness to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, 

"What a piece of work is man!" uttering, just be- 
fore the conversation with Ophelia, the immortal solil- 
oquy, "To be or not to be, that is the question." 

The scene in which Hamlet wildly advises Ophelia 



337 University Magazine 

to retire to a nunnery, Hamlet's advice to the players 
and the interview with his mother are all found in 
"Fratricide Punished, "but they are mere travesties in- 
stead of the master strokes of Shakespeare we have 
"Words, words, words!" 

A comparison of Hamlet's instruction to the play- 
ers, beginning - "Speak, the speech I pray you as I pro- 
nounced it to you, etc. , and of those passages revealing 
the experienced playwright and the genius, with the cor- 
responding piece in "Fratricide Punished" may serve 
to show a decided difference in the character of the two 
plays. After criticising the head-gear of the actors, 
Hamlet tells them that" when they act a king or a prince- 
ly personage they should not leer so much when they 
pay a compliment to a lady and not be always stepping a 
Spanish pavan, nor putting on such braggadocio airs," 
that a player should imagine himself the character he 
is representing, etc. This is no doubt wise counsel as 
far as it goes but is clearly below Shakespeare. 

Instead of Shakespeare's heart-stirring, soul-stirring 
ptcture of Hamlet and his mother when he "cleft her 
heart in twain," in that interview during which he 
states the old eavesdropper, we have the prince in the 
German play speaking thus: 

"Do you weep? Ah, leave off: they are mere croco- 
dile's tears. But see, there in that gallery hangs the 
counterfeit of your first husband and there hangs the 
counterfeit of your present. What think you now? 
Which of them is the comeliest? Is not the first a 
majestic lord?" The old chamberlain crouches behind 
the tapestry, Hamlet stabs him, the ghost of the mur- 



Hamlet with the Part of Hamlet Left Out 338 

dered king - appears, is invisible to the queen and 
Hamlet, reproaching his mother for not being" worthy 
to look upon his(the ghost's) form, leaves her in anger. 

There is no gentle touch of the spirit's pity and inter- 
cession for the queen as seen in the direction to Hamlet to 
"Step between her and her fighting soul," no trace of 
lingering love and tenderness for the mother or con- 
fidence in her capability of good, as Shakespeare im- 
plied in Hamlet's anxious hope that the queen would 
cultivate virtue, that she would throw away the evil 
portion of her heart "And live the purer with the 
other half," as seen in the near approach of the prince 
to an apology for his candid reproof and in his plead- 
ing counsel, 

"Confess yourself to heaven 
Repeat what's past, avoid what is to come." 

The fact that there is not one of Hamlet's great 
soliloquies in the "Brudermord" is sufficient to stamp 
the play as Hamlet with Hamlet left out, for it is 
through soliloquy that he is revealed by Shakespeare in 
his true character. 

The following is the soliloquy of the German play: 
"Unfortunate Prince! how much longer must thou live 
without peace? How long dost thou delay, O right- 
eous Nemesis before thou whettest thy righteous 
sword of vengeance for my uncle, the fratricide? 
Hither have I come once more but can not attain to my 
revenge, because the fratricide is surrounded all 
the time by so many people. But I swear that be- 
fore the sun has fi'-ished his journey from east to west, 
I will revenge myself on him." The Hamlet here por- 



339 Uniervsity Magazine 

trayed is not the prince whose diseased mind, brooding 
and inactive temperament and speculative disposition 
interfere with vengeance; here we do not find a prince 
irresolute, a victim of exessive reflection, a mind "Sick- 
lied o'er with the~ pale cast of thought, " a Hamlet 
conscious of condemning- his own weakness, feeling" 
that his scruples are. . . . "But one part wisdom 
And ever three parts coward." 
The grave-yard scene in Shakespeare's play is one 
which we can hardly imagine omitted from the Hamlet 
drama; it is necessary for the full depicting of Hamlet's 
character. The reminiscences relating to Yorick, 
the grim jesting of the grave diggers, Hamlet's reflec- 
tions, with the skull in his hand, on the vanity of life, 
his whole conversation with Horatio, terminating in 
the observation 

"Imperial Caesar, dead and turned to clay 
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away" 
all contribute greatly to the full Hamlet conception 
and to the general action of the drama. The funeral 
obsequies of Ophelia are important as showing the 
narrow religious views of- the day and there is a subtle 
touch in the picture of the queen throwing flowers into 
the grave. A new side of Hamlet is displayed in the 
encounter with L/aertes, and the struggle in the grave 
may be considered the "dumb show presaging the 
deadly struggle to take place later under the king's 
auspices. There is no trace of the graveyard scene in 
"Fratricide Punished." Truly the part of Hamlet is 
left out of the "Brudermord." 

The introduction of low comic characters and coarse 






Hamlet with the Part of Hamlet Left Out .340 

humor into "Fratricide Punished" gives a tone to the 
play entirely unknown in the "Hamlet" of Shakes- 
peare. 

Among- the most surprising - variations in the Bruder- 
mord in the familiar Hamlet story may be mentioned 
the undignified behavior of the ghost during the first 
appearance ;the absurd Munchausen-like stratagem by 
which Hamlet saves his life, after the order has been 
given by the king for his murder; and the changed 
and lowered conception of Ophelia. 

Compare the first scene of Shakespeare's "Hamlet," 
with its realistic imagery, picturing the quiet guard, 
"not a mouse stirring" on the platform at Dlisnore, 
Bernardo's account of a strange apparition, the sudden 
interruption of 

"Marcellus. Peace, break thee off; look where it 
comes again! 

Bernardo. In the same figure, like the king that's 
dead. 

Marcellus. Thou art a scholar; speak to it, Hor- 
atio. 

Bernardo. Looks it not like the king? Mark it 
Horatio. 

Horatio. Most like; it harrows me with fear and 
wonder." 

(Horatio's address to the ghost follows here.) 

"Marcellus. It is offended. 

Bernardo. See, it stalks away! 

Horatio. Stay! speak, speak! I charge thee 
speak! (Exit ghost)"— 

Compare this scene with the conversation of the sen- 



341 University Magazine 

tinels and the action of the ghost in "Fratricide Pun- 
ished" and the low grotesque effect is almost pain- 
ful. 

"Sentinel. What is it that has particularly fright- 
ened thee? 

1st Sent. I'll tell thee. I've seen a ghost in front 
of the castle and he wanted twice to pitch me down 
from the bastion." 

Contemptuous expressions from the second sentinel 
form the response, he then goes on duty and the g-host 
appears to him, when he gives vent to his alarm 
thus, 

"O holy Anthony of Padua, defend me. I see now 
what my comrade told me. 0,St. Velter, if my first 
round were only over I'd run away like any rogue. 
If I only had a drink of wine from the king's table to 
put out the fire in my heart. The devil himself is af- 
ter me, Oh, I'm so frightened I can't stir!" 

Just before he concludes this speech the ' ' Ghost 
from behind gives him a box on the ear and makes 
him drop his musket and exit." 

Passing on to another striking characteristic scene 
we find Hamlet, in the beginning of Act IV, pleading 
for his life with the banditti, who according to instruc- 
tions are about to shoot him. 

"Hamlet. Hear me, one word more. Since the 
very worst of malefactors is not denied a time for re- 
pentance. I, an innocent prince, beg you to let me 
raise to my maker a fervent prayer; after that I am 
ready to die. But I will give you a signal. I will 
turn my hands toward heaven, and the moment I 



Hamlet zvith the Pari of Hamlet Left Out 342 

stretch out my arms, fire! Aim both pistols at my 
side and when I say 'shoot' give me as much as I need, 
and be sure to hit me so that I shall not be long- in tor- 
ture. 

Band. Well we can easily grant him this favor. 
Therefore, go ahead." 

Hamlet then spreads out his hands, throws himself 
forward on his face between the two, cries 'shoot, 'and 
the executioners,firing at the same instant, as directed, 
of course kill each other. Hamlet exclaims "O just 
heaven! thanks be to thee for this angelic idea. I will 
praise forever the guardian angel who through my 
own idea has saved my life." The scene seems more 
suited to a parody than a tragedy. 

Phantasmo, the court fool, and Jeno, the peasant, 
characters of "Fratricide Punished" are suited only to 
low comedy, and the spectacle of Ophelia pursuing the 
vulgar buffoon, madly soliciting his attention and 
striking him, when, suddenly, in her insane grief, she 
imagines Hamlet beckoning her, is a scene trury re- 
volting. The coarse girl of the German play cannot 
be associated with the timid, confiding, gentle, pure 
and fair Ophelia, the sweet and delicate nature, as sen- 
sitive to a touch as are her loved pansies, rosemary 
and daisies and the violets that "withered" when her 
"father died," poor Ophelia irrevocably crushed by a 
double blow, falling at last from the willow into the 
brook, drowned, still clinging to her flowers and chant- 
ing snatches of old times. Surely it is almost sacri- 
lege to confound Shakespeare's Ophelia with the favo- 
rite attendant of the queen in the German play, who 



343 University Magazine 

runs up and down, cries and screams, eats and 
drinks nothing-, has "lost her wits" as is said of her, 
and finally to use the words of the text "went up a 
hig'h hill and threw herself down and killed herself." 

Shakespeare's fine strokes in vividly showing- the 
soil which produced an Ophelia, in portraying- her nat- 
ural heritage as the daug-hter of Polonius, and as the 
product of her peculiar environment are not to be 
found in the "Brudermord." 

There no curtain is raised upon Danish family life in 
the home of the lord chamberlain. We do not have 
the benefit of Laertes' advice to his sister "touching 
my lord Hamlet" and her famous reply, of the pater- 
nal exhortation of Polonius, the "few precepts," sen-! 
tentiously delivered by the g-arrulous old g-entleman, 
setting- forth the whole duty of a young- man of fash- 
ion, including - sentiments of a hig-h order and closing 
with the noble injunction 

"To thine own self be true 

And 

Thou canst not then be false to any man." 

In the German play we are not enlightened, as in 
Shakespeare, as to the shallow nature of the chamber- 
lain's morals, by his dispatching- a confidential ag-ent 
to Paris as a spy upon his son and on this occasion 
elaborating, so as to reveal no deep sense of honor and 
virtue, his ideas of what Boas calls the "venial slips of 
youth." 

The scenes just cited are conspicuous by their ab- 
sence in the play of "Fratricide Punished." 

The king- and queen in the German play, though 



Hamlet zvith the Part of Hamlet Left Out 344 

taking- substantially the same part as in Shakespeare 
are lacking - in individuality, the queen being- hardly 
more than a mere figure head and the king display- 
ing more of the studied, affected, euphuistic style char- 
acteristic of him in Shakespeare. The strength and 
beauty of Horatio's character and his important rela- 
tion to Hamlet are by no means fully seen in the 
"Brudermord." Throughout the play Hamlet's mad- 
ness is clearly feigned; there is no possible lapsing in- 
to real insanity on account of tremendous pressure of 
grief and circumstances. 

It is worthy of note that the German play is lacking 
in the touches of ironical cynicism which strengthen 
Shakespeare's Hamlet conception and also that it has 
none of the lyrical beauty found in Shakespeare, as in 
the speech of Marcellus, referring to the idea that at 
the season of Christ's birth "The bird of dawning 
singeth all night long" when "no witches, fairies nor 
spirits" can walk abroad 

"So hallowed and so gracious is the time." 

The prologue of "Fratricide Punished, " a short com- 
prehensive dialogue between Night and the Furies, 
though marred by coarseness, seems almost forcible 
enough to introduce the play of Shakespeare and is de- 
cidedly superior to the mere skeleton play of the Ger- 
mans. 

"Fratricide Punished" is, as has been said the "play of 
Shakespeare, corrupted, attenuated, shorn of its great 
nobility, distorted, degraded vulgarized." 

If we accept the theory that the "Brundermord" was 
prior in date to the "Hamlet" of Shakespeare and that 
3 



345 University Magazine 

the plot was utilized in Shakespeare's play, 
there still is no detraction from the art of the 
master dramatist. For it is not the story that makes 
Shakespeare's play of Hamlet; it is Hamlet himself! 
And "Fratricide Punished" is the play of Hamlet with 
the part of Hamlet left out. The poet Campbell has 
said, "I believe that of ever} 7 other character, either in 
tragic or epic poetry, the story makes part of the con- 
ception; but of Hamlet the deep and permanent inter- 
est is the conception of himself." The character of 
Hamlet is the creation of Shakespeare. 

That it is more pondered oyer, that it inspires more 
interest than any other character oi literature is per- 
haps due to Hamlet's continual utterance of the 
thoughts of all mankind, to his struggles with the 
problems of life, to his despair under a dark and awful 
cloud and to the sense that Hamlet's weakness and de- 
fects of nature are not peculiar to him alone but com- 
mon to all the world. Indeed, as Coleridge has said 
"The character must have some connection with the 
fundamental laws of our nature." 

Hamlet is to some extent, the incarnation of the uni- 
versal mind and of universal sorrow. Furness has ex- 
pressed the verdict of mankind when he says: 

"No one of mortal mould ('save Him whose blessed 
feet were nailed for our advantage to the bitter cross') 
ever trod this earth, commanding such absorbing inter- 
est as this Hamlet, this mere creation of a poet's 
brain." 



WHEN THE JESSAMINE BLOOMS AGAIN. 



The Confederates lay like a dyke along- the right 
bank of the Rappahannock. The red glow of sunset 
had vanished from earth and air, and the river lay as 
dark and silent as the monster asleep on its bank. 
But the separate limbs and muscles of the monster 
were quite active — what we call in physiology now, 
unconscious cerebration. It required the light of day 
for this Leviathan of the land t© move as one system of 
nerves and fibres. Its life resolved itself into tactors at 
night. Corps, brigades, regiments, companies, lived, 
each a life peculiar to itself and yet related to the in- 
dividual men as to the universe. 

Fires of a scraggy bush nature were attempting to 
carry out the poetic description, "blazing along the 
line." They seemed to do better in Longstreet's corps 
than in any other and in Kershaw's brigade of South 
Carolina troops there was one so advanced as to 
warrant beginning the preparation of something which 
for conventionality's sake, the men still called 
supper. 

"My God, Jim, stop eatin' that green corn. You'll 
die, boy. Doc's done tole us." 

"Doc's a lie. I can't starve. " 

"Put it down, Ross." 

With a salute the man obeyed his captain and went 
on — starving. 



347 • University ^Magazine 

The clear, crisp words or authority came from a 
youth of twenty, but he was a god in a way to seventy- 
five men. Now he was writing- on his knapsack as a 
desk. The firelight threw lights and shadows equal- 
ly across the paper, making- him pause now and then 
to a make plane for the next word. Raising- the paper up, 
one side is seen to be an advertisement for tobacco. 
Choice in stationery was largelv of the variety known 
as Hobson's. He writes eagerly, as if his very soul 
was being spread out on that rag'ged piece of paper. 

The men have fallen into groups as sheep at even- 
tide. The talk is all of battles, of battles on land and 
sea, where the blood-red, swollen, blackened bodies 
marked the day's work. 

"Ole man Burnside and hisyankees is goin' to ketch 
hellter morrer," came from a group where "seven-up" 
had begun to be played. 

"Who said so?" The dealer paused long enough to 
get an answer and then went on. 

"Man in the 7th. North Carolina" 

"He ain't no prayer book, I reckon." 

"No, by George, they're anything else." 

The young Captain had finished, and comments 
broke off as he stood looking over the g'roups for a 
messenger. Turning to one, he said: 

"Private Mann, see that this letter is posted behind 
the lines." 

In a few minutes Private Mann had become a part of 
the blackness called"behind the lines." He managed to 
steer close to a light very soon after. To know the 
address of a letter ©ne is carrying is not a hanging 
crime. 



When the Jessamine Blooms Again 348 

"I thought it was a her" and as an after thought 
and an attempt to give credit where credit was 
due in spite of personal grievance, he added, 
"and Cap's the best fighther in the regiment, too." 

* * * * 

"March 1863 — will it never end, thought the girl. 
L/ittle tears came welling up as she thought of 
the war and its possibilities. 

Then she remembered what she had said to him the 
night he left, and her lips trembled now and then as 
she said it over. "I'll be brave, George. I'll be brave, 
George. I'll be brave, — but oh, come back to me!" And 
sobbing with grief she stretched out her arms as if to 
grasp a phantom. 

If he could only come. There were so few chances 
for him to write. "Oh, the cruel, cruel war," she wail- 
ed. She read every line in the newspapers to see if 
among the "killed" and "missing" there might be the 
name, Geo. Miller, Capt. Co. F. 21st. S. C. She be- 
lieved she would die if she were to see it, but a 
something which she could not control would 
not allow her to desist. 

Spring would soon be here. Really, it had begun. 
Little gusts of wind swayed the peach trees and 
made the ground pink with falling petals. She 
thought of the time when love was free. But their 
freedom had been so short. At this time of the year 
and until the jessamine bloomed, and then he had gone 
to the war. The season was coming again — the same 
flowers, the roses he loved, all would come but George. 
And what was there without him, — bowing her head 
she allowed the tears to flow as they willed. 



349 University Magazine 

She heard some one coming - up the road on horse- 
back and a voice she knew full well called her. No 
answer, nor did she raise her head. But when with 
mock gravity he called out, 

"Miss Jessie Dayle, one letter." She threw up her 
tearful pall and rushed out to him. 

"Give it to me, now, Father." 

He held it up tauntingly as he said, "Not till I know 
what is the matter with my little bird." 

"She wanted that letter." 

"Well, now she has gx>t it, I do not want to see any 
more weeping - , dear little bird." 

She thoug-ht she answered, "No Sir;" but her inter- 
est in the letter absorbed her faculties. Over and 
over ag"ain she read it and then down by the big - spring- 
in the evening - when the shadows were long - and g"aunt 
and the ripple of the river came softly purling - through 
the air, she read for the last time that day, this letter: 

Darling Jessie:- There is a slight -possible chance of 
getting you a letter and you knozv I could not think of 
you all the time and allozv such a chance to go by. The 
enemy is yielding everyday and Gen. Lee is steadily 
advancing. * * Soon it will all be o'er. Be brave 
and true, little szveetheart. It may be that I shall join 
you at the river side — zvhere I knozvyouarenozv — when 
the jessamine blooms again. 

Forever yours, 

G. M. 

The night before he left they sat here. The breeze 
heavy with the fragrance of the yellow jessamine from 



When the Jessamine. Blooms Again 350 

the river's bank smote their faces white and terse 
in the moonlight. It seemed to come in waves and bear 
one along" to sweet E}lysium, lulled by its gentle 
motion, and overwhelmed by its perfume. Both re- 
marked its presence, and that the night and the jes- 
samine should always be asssociated. Till now it had 
been a sad one, but his coming- in the time of the jes- 
samine would make it the sweetest flower that grows. 

She took up her abode in the prison of Hope and 
lived there day by day. Her father, too old for service, 
helped her by making - the prison stronger with state- 
ments of his own. He had seen part of the letter 
and it was with authority that he said pompously to 
his neighbors that he had had advices from the front 
and could say safely here what the plans were. Gen. 
Ivee, it was known, would carry the war into the 
enemy's country. The end was near. 

Days pressed on days, but the end seemed just as far 
as at first. She had a hard battle of her own when 
the flowers first bloomed and spring - came rioting- on as 
it does in lower Carolina. She watched the slaves as 
they began to "clear up" for work in the fields. Light 
curling spires of smoke worked where the just bloom- 
ing black berries were being destroyed and also such 
wandering pieces of jessamine as had found their way 
from the great "hummock" on the river. The great 
embankments of the vine along the river were left un- 
touched: there their matted roots had no fear of the 
black men and their hoes. 

Spring was well nigh gone, the jessamine had bloom- 
ed, and ere it could be known, Summer ruled with un- 



351 University Magazine 

disputed sway and George had not come. But she 
lived on with hope. 

June came and with it the news that Gen. Lee was 
in Pennsylvania with the Army of Northern Virginia. 

"Now he will come," she thought, "but if— Oh, God, 
bring him back to me." 

-X- * -X- * 

It seemed like a day on a vast desert, that second day 
at Gettysburg; the day of destiny to the men there. 
Their throats seemed parched beyond relief, and relief 
there was none. Capt. Miller knew his Company was 
the best in the regiment and wondered why he had not 
been ordered into action. But no soldier in ranks be- 
lieved more sincerely than he that the word was to do and 
die, and not to reason why. All da}^ they had been 
standing ready and could judge the advances and re- 
treats by the rain of bullets as they fell behind or in 
front of them. Death was there and was all powerful 
whether standing or walking. Captain Miller receiv- 
ed his orders from the Orderly and said to his men: 

"Men of the Secession Guards, you are ordered to take 
yonder battery. Forward!" That his whole frame was 
trembling with eager excitement was not seen. Seven- 
ty-five throats united in the Rebel yell. That yell 
frightful, half infernal, was the last utterance of 
almost one half the men. 

The advance was down a little slope, along a flat 
bottom and across a small stream ' and then up a long 
bare hill flanked on the left with woods. 

At "Forward "they had run out as if in a race. The 
stream was reached and the hum of the first bullets 



When the Jessamine Blooms Again 352 

was recognized. Only one man dropped. He did not 
know where lie was hit, but yelled "Go on, boys" and 
began to watch the water dyed with his blood. Bul- 
lets were singing now like a thousand hand looms. 
They were up by the edge of the woods now, but had 
become a straight line. Everybody was in every- 
body's way except right in front where Captain Miller 
went straight on. The gleam of his sword was the 
only guide the men had. Most of them held their el- 
bows over their eyes as if to keep out a strong- 
glare. Those who fell kept it up and it made 
a sure hurdle for some one to fall over. "What the 
Hell do you mean, man?" The second lieutenant had 
fallen over a man, and he added, "lie down when you're 
shot, don't sit up like a fool. Come on up there, Ross. 
Damn it you're no gate post." "Hey, hey, come on," 
Miller was beginning to yell at them. 

But the glare of that furnace of hellfire was too 
strong. They could not look at it; and the singing ef 
the bullets made their very brains sick. Once again 
they formed and became a moving living Aries. The 
time seemed to be days long, but really it was the 
space of only a few seconds. Miller was still running 
ahead. Men seemed to be stumbling and falling like 
awkward children, but the noise of guns told of the 
victory of death. At a distance where the noise of 
battle could not have been heard one would have said 
that Captain Miller had fallen over a rock. But there 
was something fearful about the men. Wavering, the 
solid body broke again into helpless individuals. Mil- 
ler saw it as he lay on the ground, and sticking 
his sword in the ground he raised himself up by it and 



353 University Magazine 

staggering on called to them in a voice not terrestrial 
nor yet celestial, "Forward Secession Guards!" 

The men of the battery could not resist the onslaught 
of a body of men who had seen this. Those who 
could, saw the Captain smile as they rushed by. First 
Lieutenant Vann, blackened with powder and swearing 
was at their head, and the hill was taken. Then 
they sent a detail for Company F's hero and god. 

"He was saying something about Jessie and jessa- 
mine. Must have been out of his head as he didn't 
live more than a minute after we got him on a stretch- 
er." 

* * * * 

Days were like centuries to her. Hot, dry, parching 
August was upon them before she knew that he was 
really dead. Her father tried to talk of "this gallant 
youth" in his same old way, but at the sight of her 
white face all drawn with its heart-pain that ne'er 
could be eased, he would choke up and let his eyes grow 
misty. She tried to be her old self for her father's 
sake. Sometimes she would put her arms around his 
neck playfully, but when their eyes met the sight of 
her face would bring tears to the old man's eyes, and 
he would weep for her sorrow. No help could be 
given her. It was George she wanted and only 
George would do. 

The days were Spring days now and she seemed a little 
stronger and her father hoped for better things; but it 
was a false change, for ere the jessamine had bloomed 
again her sweet young spirit had joined the one for 
which it sighed in that spirit-land where faithful lov- 
ers forever dwell. W. H. L., '99. 



A REFLECTION. 



The miracle of the Incarnation at times seems so 
wonderful as to challenge the credulity of man. Yet 
it is but little more wonderful than manv thing's which 
confront us in the course of life. That we live at all 
passes all comprehension. 

A chemist can analyze the human body. He can 
tell you the elements which constitute the body and 
the exact proportions in which they exist, but he has 
never discovered life. He can separate, but cannot 
fabricate. Verily he can put the constituent parts of 
the human machine back again in the same proportion 
which exist in life, but he cannot create life. 

The problem of human life is as utterly unsolved to- 
day as it ever was. 1 know that I am; this is just as 
much as the greatest and best man has ever learned. 

We know that there is evolution in life. This evo- 
lution is simply progression toward God. It has con- 
tinued from the amoeba to man; not that the life of 
man had its origin in that of any inferior animal, but 
simply that God permits this progression to exist in 
the wonderful autonomy of nature; not that the life of 
man is further from the life of God than that of any 
other animal save in its conception of God. 

There is nothing in the Universe devoid of system. 
In all this system man is king. Every living thing 
does him homage. Every season brings her offering. 



355 University Magazine 

Amid the perfume of her flowers nature has surround- 
ed him with her music and pictures; and nature herself 
is more attractive under his supervision and his care. 

This king - is the highest type of animal life which 
God has seen fit to create. The life of man is perhaps — 
is surely nearer the life of God than the greatest and 
best ever dreamed it to be. 

Man was not born to die, but to live. 

Every man is but an exhalation from God. Every 
life is a divine miracle. The beautiful and divine life 
of Christ was no more a miracle than the life of any 
man. It simply expresses the nearness of man to God. 
It is an eternal pledge from God that man was born to 
live, not to die ; that He is forever watchful over us ; 
that He forever would draw us to Him ; that our exist- 
ence is merged into His life, and that no human being- 
should perislj. 

Edward W. Pou. 



North Carolina University Magazine. 

PUBLISHED SIX TIMES DURING THE COLLEGE YEAR BY 
THE DIALECTIC AND PHILANTHROPIC LITERARY SOCIETIES. 

Old series, vol. xxix. no. 6--june, 1899. New series, vol. xvi. 

PRICE $1.50 PFR YEAR - - - - 25 CENTS PER COPY. 

Tine Board of Editors. 

WILLIAM SIDNEY WILSON, '99, Editor-in-Chief, Di. 
Henry Mauger London, '99, Managing Editor, Di. 
William Stanley Bernard, '00, Phi. 
Claude Baker Denson, Jr., '99, Phi. 
Alonzo Enoch Cates, '00, Di. 
William Prank Bryan, 'OO, Phi. 
Francis Moore Osborne, '99, Di. 

WILLIAM EDWARD COX, '99, Business Manager, Phi. 

All literary communications should be addressed to the Editor- 
in-Chief. All business matters to the Business Manager. 
Entered at the Chapel Hill Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter. 

The Editor's Desk. 

Commencement The goal toward which '99 has 
of '99. striven for four long years has been 

reached. Commencement has come and is gone. It 
was with mingled pleasure and regret that the class 
neared its finish for every one knew that friendships 
would cease which had long been pleasant and which 
would be long remembered. The fifty-seven young 



357 University Magazine 

men and two young - women who filled our ranks will 
never meet again. Reunions may come, and they will 
come, but forever hereafter the ranks will be broken. 
But '99 has a permanent class organization and as 
many as can will gather here again in 1904 to do hom- 
age to their alma mater. Until then and ever after 
then no matter where they roam or what land they call 
their home, the University of North Carolina will have 
no stronger friends than these members of the class 
of '99. 



Parting With this issue the present Editorial staff 
word. of the Magazine finishes its work for the 
college year and welcomes the new corps of Editors 
and bids adieu to its readers. That our work has been 
imperfect and that the ideal college magazine has by 
no means been reached, is recognized by no one more 
fully than by the Editors themselves; yet we feel that 
we can conscientiously say, that under the circum- 
stances we have done our best. We recognize the fact 
also that although the Literary Societies have ever 
stood ready to help us materially, the student body as 
a whole has not taken the interest in magazine work it 
should have done; and we trust that our successors 
will have a larger number of contributors and that 
they will not be forced to impose on good nature as we 
feel we have done in having to call upon the same per- 
sons so often. To them and to all who have in any- 
way assisted us, we offer our thanks, and to those who 



The Editor's Desk 358 

have criticized our work, we wish them the pleasure 
some day of filling" our position. 

The ICditor-in-Chief wishes to thank the members of 
the board for the kind and sympathizing" interest they 
have always taken in the Magazine, and to assure 
them that to their efforts is largely due whatever suc- 
cess the Magazine may have attained. 

And now with a final farewell we bring - to a close 
the work of the board of '98-'99. 



Book Notices. 



The Conjure Woman by Charles W. Ches- 
nutt: Houghton Mifflin & Co., Boston, Mass. 
Price $1.25. 

A collection of seven negro-dialect stories. They 
all have to do with the magic "conjure" or mysterious 
"goopher" whose powerful influence is acknowledged 
by negroes all through the South. It is an interesting- 
field for psychological study — this conjure belief. 
This little volume however is written solely to enter- 
tain, and judging from our own experience it is bound 
to succeed. 

One of the first things noticed in such dialect stories 
by a Southerner is the accuracy or inaccuracy of the 
dialect. The author has succeeded in giving us a 
purely natural speech for • his characters. They are 
real in action as well as in speech. 

Uncle Julius is a truer type than Uncle Remus in 
our opinion. Uncle Julius is, of course, the story tel- 
ler and if his pack contains others as good as "The 
Goophered Grapevine" or "The Gray Wolf's Ha'nt" 
the reading public will demand their immediate publi- 
cation. 

Charles W. Chesnutt has succeeded in portraying 
Ssome of the most interesting characteristics of his race 
in a way that no one else has ever done. He is a na- 
tive North Carolinian, by the way. 



Book Notices 360 

The Southern States of the American 
Union: by J. L. M. Curry, D.D. ; B. F. Johnson 
& Co., Richmond, Va. $1.00. 

This is a copy of the recent new edition of this most 
excellent work and a new edition shows the apprecia- 
tion of it by Southern teachers. It fills a long- felt 
need of teachers in the way of a book that will give 
the true foundation for historical knowledge of his own 
nation to the growing" American youth. There is no 
rancorous sectionalism about it : the red robe of rebell- 
ion does not flap before your eyes ; the Southern Col- 
onel does not strut around and say what "we mig-ht 
have done if — " nor is there any condemnation where 
condemnation is not due — in a word, it is the book most 
needed for a close and conservative study of the troub- 
les of da} T s now forever past. 



Southern Literature : by Louise Maney ; 
Uniform with the above. 

The time embraced is from 1579 — 1898. It makes a 
very interesting collection for the general reader, 
though its primary use is for schools. Miss Man- 
ly's classifications are excellent. We sug-g-est that 
more than a nodding - acquaintance with Southern Lit- 
erature be made one of the requirements for our en- 
trance examinations. 



Exchanges. 



Wm. S. Bernard, Editor. 

The academic year will soon have drawn to a close, 
examinations and Commencement forgotten before we 
can place the Magazine in the hands of its subscribers. 

It gives us a pang - to think of ourself a lone, solitary 
exchange lying - on a deserted table with no warm hand 
to turn our pages, or quick sympathetic eye to scan 
our columns. To such of our fraternity however as 
this our last issue may reach we bid a sorrowful 
farewell — for we feel, we know and are bright- 
ened by the hope that many a well known name will 
be in its accustomed place again ere September has 
drawn to its close. The receipt of the following Maga- 
zines for the academic year is gratefully acknowledged. 

The William and Mary College Monthly, The Polytechnic, 
Woffor.d College Journal, The Criterion, Mount. St. Joseph 
Collegian, The Haverfordian, Southwestern Presbyterian Universi- 
ty Journal, The College of Charleston Magazine, The Converse Con- 
cept, Niagara Index, The Chisel, State Normal Magazine, The 
Trinity Archive, The Minneseta Magazine, The Athenaeum, The 
Wellesley Magazine, Vanderbilt Observer, The College Message, 
The Guilford Collegian, Hendrix College Mirror, Student Life, The 
Red and Blue, The Southern Collegian, The Western Maryland Col- 
lege Monthly, University Courant,The Integral, The College Athlete, 
The Philomathean Monthly, The Erskinian, The Stephens Life, 
Elizabeth Chronicle, The Nazarene, The Buff and Blue, The Pur- 
due Exponent, Mnemosynean, The Carolinian, Clemson 
College Chronicle, The Georgian, The Baylor Literary, Rich- 
mond College Messenger, The Furman Echo, The William 
Jewell Student, The University of Virginia Magazine, Missouri 
State University Independent, Philomathean Monthly, The Clover 
Leaf, Hampden-Sidney Magazine, The Wake Forest Student, The 
Kalends. The Davidson College Magazine, Crescent Rays, The 
Gunniston Echo, 1212 Fourteenth St., Washington, D. C. Eumuean 
College Magazine, corner and Berkley Sts., Boston, Mass., The 
Atlantis, Central University, Richmond Ky., The Bellevue High 
School Nondescript, Bellevue. P.O. Va. 



Alumni Notes. 



H. M. LONDON. W. F. BRYAN. 

H. A. London, A.B., 1868, delivered the annual literary address 
before the Durham graded schools, on June 2nd. 

Joseph P. Wimberly, Med. '95-97, graduated recently at the Jef- 
ferson Medical College, Philadelphia, standing first in a large 
class. 

Lewis V. Bassett. Lawl896-'97, has a fine practice in his profession 
at Rocky Mount, N. C. 

Jones Fuller, Law, '98, has settled in Durham for the practice of 
law. 

John Hilton' 1878-82, is a prominent physician at Swansea, Mass. 

The monograph of J. G. McCormick on the personnel of the Seces- 
sion Convention of 1861 will be run through the press by the latter 
part of June. It contains a complete sketch of all the mem- 
bers of that celebrated Convention and will be the first of a series 
of publications by the Universitj'. 

Miss Sallie W. Stockard, A. B., '98, has been employed by the 
the Raleigh Moring Post to write a series of historical sketches. She 
has begun with the War of the Regulation and will follow it up by 
a history of Alamance County. 

Mr. E. E. Sams, '98, has been for the past year principal of the 
college at Mars Hill, Madison County, N. C. 

Mr. Luther B. Edward's, '88, has been principal for the year of 
the Franklin Classical Institute. 

John A. Nairon, 1889, Law '93, is now a prominent lawyer in 
Smithfield, N. C. 

Mr. Walter O. Cot, Law '98, has settled as a lawyer at Winston. 

S. W, Kenny. 1894-'96, is the very efficient editor of a widely 
kown journal, the Windsor Ledger. 



,36 3 University Magazine 

William F. Battle, Jr., 1868, has been promoted to be superinten- 
dent of a branch of the Norfolk and Western Railroad. 

Francis D. Koonce, Jr., 1888, M.ed., '95, is practicing medicine at 
Richlands, Onslow county. 

Dr. Mangum read a paper on the use of antitoxin serums, at the 
meeting of the medical board in Asheville last week. 

Mr. T. G. Pearson, '99, has been made State Ornithologist; and 
has also been elected Professor of Biology and Geology at Guilford 
College. 

William S. Roberson, 1889, Eaw, '91, has removed from Graham 
to Chapel Hill. He is one of the executors of his lamented father, 
Dr. A. B. Roberson. / 

Dr. Lewis J. Battle, 1886, has succeeded to the practice of an em- 
inent retired physician of Washington, D. C. 

William Dempsey Grimes, '97, E. L. '98, has been recently elected 
Captain of a military organization in Eastern Carolina. 

Dr. Alderman has delivered addresses at the following places dur- 
ing the spring: — 
April 13 Elon College. 

April 14 Horner School. 

May 3, Tulane University, New Orleans. 

May 11, University College of Medicine, Rich- 

mond, Va. 
May 18, Wilson Graded Schools. 

May 21, State Normal and Industrial College. 

June 7, Elon College. 

June 13, Elizabeth City, N. C. 

MARRIAGES. 

Edward Payson Willard, '93, was united in marriage to Mary, 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. H.R.Eove,in St. James Church, Wilmitng- 
ton, June 7. 

DEATHS. 
Robert Gatling, 1891-'92, died May 4, 1899, at Raleigh. 
David Schenck, Jr., 1884-'8S, died at Greensboro May 11, 1899. 

John K. Gibson, 1867-'68, of Richmond county, a lawyer of Black 
Rock, Arkansas, a member of the General Assembly of Arkansas, 
died, March 21, 1899. 



College Record. 



F. M. Osborne, A. F. Cates. 

The gift of the Senior Class to the University was a bust of Zeb- 
ulon B. Vance, made by our North Carolina artist, Randall. 

Dr. and Mrs. Pratt expect to spend the summer in western North 
Carolina. 

The Commencement Dances were led by Mr. Junius D. Grimes, 
'99, and were most enjoyable occasions. 

Dr. H. V. Wilson has been appointed director of the Marine 
Laboratory, established by the United States Fish Commission at 
Beaufort, N. C, and is already on the grounds for the summer. Dr. 
Wilson was formerly connected with the United States Fish Com- 
mission. 

The graduating class this year numbered the largest since 1861. 
The degree of A. M. was conferred on Misses Ahern and Kendrick, 
both graduates of Smith College, Massachusetts; and Messrs. 
Henderson and Horney, graduates of the University of North Caro- 
lina. 

Prof. Karl P. Harrington has resigned his position here and ac- 
cepted the chair of L,atin in the University of Maine. Dr, H. F. 
Lanscott has been elected to fill the place thus left vacant. 

Dr. Thomas Hume, Professor of English, is to deliver the address 
at the Commencement exercises of Washington and Lee this 
year. 

The '99 Hellenian which was received just before Commencement 
seems to give entire satisfaction to those who have been interested 
in getting out this publication. Besides the number of copies order- 
ed the Business Manager has on hand a few extra copies. Mr. W. 
F. Bryan will remain in Chapel Hill several days after Commence- 
ment to dispose of the stock on hand. Price $1.50 per copy with 18 
cents postage. 

A course of instruction in dyeing is to be added to the department 
of Chemistry, and will be in charge of Dr. Thomas Clarke. 

Mr. J. G. Crawford has been sick with malarial fever for several 
weeks, and has not yet recovered. 

Of the Class of '99, 18 expect to teach; 12 to study law; and 7 
medicine. 



'99 Commencement. 

The Commencement exercises of 1899 opened on 
Sunday morning-, May 28th, in Gerrard Hall with the 
Baccalaureate Sermon by Bishop Thompson, of Miss- 
issippi. Bishop Thompson's text was taken from 
Paul's advice to Timothy — "I have fought a good 
fight; I have finished my course; I have kept the faith 
etc." 

On Monday, May 29th, Hon. H. G. Counor deliver- 
ed an eloquent address before the Law Class. The 
Seniors attended these exercises in a body. 

The annual meetings of the literary societies held at 
eight o'clock Monday evening were exceedingly inter- 
esting. 

On Tuesday was held a meeting of the Board of 
Trustees. 

Tuesday was Senior Class Day and the following in- 
teresting programme was carried out: — 

9:30 A. M. Prayer in the Chapel, conducted by 
Dr. Thomas Hume. 

11:30 A. M. Address of Welcome, J. S. Carr, Jr., 
President of the Class. 

History of the Class, J. E. Latta, Historian. 

Class Poem, J. M. Sitterson, Jr., Poet. 

Prophecy of the Class, H. B. Holmes, Prophet. 

Presentation of Bust of Vance to the University, 
J. S. Carr, Jr. 
Acc^ tance on behalf of the University, Dr. E. 
A. Alderman, 



'gg Commencement 366 

Acceptance on behalf of the Trustees, Hon.R. 
T. Gray. 

5:30 P. M. Procession from Memorial Hall to Davie 
Poplar. 
Song-.— "We are the Boys of '99." 
Reading- of Class Statistics, , W. F. Cox, Statis- 
tician. 
Smoking- of Class Pipe. 
'Varsity Yell. 

Cheering Base Ball Captain ,99. 
Cheering- Foot Ball Captain '98. 
Cheering Foot Ball Coach '98. 
Cheering Fx-President Battle. 
Cheering- President Alderman. 
Planting- Ivy by F. D. Broadhurst. 
Class Yell. 

Tuesday evening- at eig-ht o'clock the orations by the 
members of the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies 
beg-an. Presiding- officer, F. D. Broadhurst, (Phi.) 

The subjects and orators were as follows: — 

A. R. Berkeley— "The Great Commoner." (Di.) 

N. F. Ward— "The World Power" (Phi). 

D. P. Parker— "What Shall Be Our National 
Ideal?" (Phi). 

T. T. Allison— "The Perfect State" (Di). 

A. J. Bar wick— "The True Sectionalism" (Phi). 

G. N. Coffey— "A Menace to Republicanism" (Di). 

The marshals were Messrs. Moore (chief), Chad- 
bourn, Cheatham, Hollowell, Neville and Jones. 

After the conclusion of these exercises a reception 
was held in Commons Hall by the President and Fac- 
ulty. 



367 University Magazine 

The graduating - exercises in Memorial Hall on Wed- 
nesday were as follows. 

Prayer by Dr. Thomas Hume. 

The Senior Speakers and their subjects were as fol- 
lows : 

James Edward Latta, "Institutionalism and its De- 
mands." 

John Mabry Greenfield, Jr., "Colonial Assimila- 
tion." 

Thomas Gilbert Pearson, "The Quaker, a Factor in 
Civilization." 

Thomas Contee Bowie, "Republicanism versus Im- 
perialism. 

Robert Dig-gfs Wimberley Connor, "Revolutions in 
Civilization." 

Address, Nicholas Murray Butler, Ph.D. 

The following" medals and prizes were awarded : 

"The Holt Medal in Mathematics," Charles White- 
head Woodson. 

"The Hume Medal in English Composition," Louis 
Round Wilsen. 

"The Worth Prize in Philosophy," Francis Wil- 
liam Coker. 

"The Harris Prize in Anatomy," Walter Vernon 
Brem, Jr. 

"Early English Text Society Prize," John William 
Canada. 

"The Greek Prize," Philip Hall Busbee, Milton 
Mcintosh. 

"The Representative's Medal," Georgfe Nelson 
Coffey. 

"The Mang-um Medal in Oratory," Thomas Contee 
Bowie. 



'oo Commencement 368 

The following - degrees were conferred : 
Bachelor of Arts: — Charles Skinner Alston, Ed- 
ward Stephenson i^skew, {cum laude), Marsden Bel- 
lamy, Jr., {magna cum laude), Charles Connor Brown, 
Cameron Belo Buxton, John Robert Carr, {magna cum 
laude), Julian Shakespeare Carr, Jr., {cum laude), 
Francis William Coker, (cum laude), William Edward 
Cox, Walter Scott Crawford, (cum laude), Claude 
Baker Denson, Jr., (magna cum laude), John Donnelly, 
(cum laude), Jesse Knight Dozier, (magna cum laude), 
John Mabry Greenfield, Jr., A.B. (Guilford College) 
1898, Junius Daniel Grimes, Henry Patrick Harding, 
{cum laude), Joseph Henry Hewitt, Howard Braxton 
Holmes, (cum laude), Virgil Laurens Jones, S.B. (Car- 
son and Newman) 1897, Warren Lawson Kluttz, Jr., 
Edward Mayo Land, (cum laude). Benjamin Benson 
Lane, Jr., {cum laude), Henry Mauger London, (cum 
laude), John McLauchlin McFadyen, Francis Moore 
Osborne, Joseph Murden Sitterson, Jr., George Davis 
Vick, Harry Leg;are Watson, Louis Round Wilson, 
Earnest Horatio Woodson, (cum laude). 

Bachelor of Philosophy:— Thomas Contee Bowie, 
Edgar David Broadhurst, Charles Stafford Canada, 
Robert Diggs Wimberley Connor. Fred Jackson Coxe, 
Blanford Barnard Dougherty, S.B. (Carson and New- 
man) 1896, Charles Foust Harris, Eugene Fuller 
Hartley, Robert Gilliam Kittrell, (cum laude), James 
Edward Latta, (cum laude), Henry McGilbert Wag- 
staff, William Sidney Wilson, (cum laude). 

Bachelor of Science: — James Philips Bunu, Julius 
Alexander Caldwell, Jr., (cum laude), Everett Augus- 



369 University Magazine 

tine Lockett, Alexander Clinton Miller, Edmund Vog- 
ler Patterson, Thomas Gilbert Pearson, B.S. (Guil- 
ford College) 1897, Samuel Watson Reaves, Edward 
Jenner Wood. 

Bachelor of Law: — Thomas Davis Warren. 

Graduates in Pharmacy: — Charles Dayton Gruver, 
Thomas William Kendrick, Charles Henry Smith, 
David Clarence Swindell. 

Master of Arts: — Katharine Cecilia Ahern, A.B. 
(Smith College)1898, Archibald Henderson, A.B. 1898, 
William Johnston Horney, A.B. 1897, Mary Pearson 
Kendrick, A.B. (Smith College) 1898. 



iNORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE 

VOL. XVL, 1898«>99„ 

(Founded in 1844.) 



TTtne? Board 



f Lvciit< 



W. S. WILSON, '99, Dr. EDiTOR-rN-CHrEF. 
W. E. COX. '99, PHr, BusrNESS Manager. 

ASSISTANT EDITORS. 



Di. 



Phi. 





OCTOBER ISSUE. 






C. C. Brown, '99. 




C. B. Denson, Jr., 


'99, 


John Donnelly, '99, 




H. P. HARDrNG. 


'99, 


F. M. Osborne, '99. 


DECEMBER. 


H. B. Holmes, 


'99. 


John Donnelly, '99, 




W. S. Bernard, 


'00, 


H. M. London. '99. 




C. B. Denson, Jr., 


'99, 


F. M. Osborne, '99, 


FEBRUARY. 


H. B. Holmes, 


'99. 


H. M. London, : 99. 




W. S. Bernard, 


'00, 


A. E. Cates, : 00. 




C. B. Denson, Jr., 


'99, 


F. M. Osborne, '99, 


MARCH. 


H. B. Holmes, 


'99. 


H. M. London, '99. 




W. S. Bernard, 


'00, 


A. E. Cates, '00, 




C. B. Denson, Jr., 


'99, 


F. M. Osborne, '99, 




W. F. Bryan, 


'00. 



371 University Magazine 



MAY AND JUNE. 

H. M. London, '99, Managing Editor, W. S. Bernard, '00, 

A. E. CaTES, '00, C. B. Denson, Jr., '99, 

F. M. Osborne, '99, vV. F. Bryan, '00. 

CONTENTS, 
Allegory in Tennyson's Holy Grail, The, 

H. B. Holmes, 14 

Alumni Notes, 49, 119, 182, 246, 309, 362 

Assumptions of Socialism, W. S. Bernard, 71 

Blakeley, Captain Johnston H. M. London, 253 

COLLEGE Record, 45, 123, 188, 250, 311, 364 

Dialectic Literary Society, The, T. G. Pearson, 85 

Did This Ever Happen to You? [Poem], 

/. W. Gt eening 270 

Dispensary System, The, H. L. Watson, 225 

Election of United States Senators, part i, 

E. D. Broadhurst, 271 

Election of United States Senators, part ii, 

T. C. Bowie,.., 317 

Exchanges 115, 188, 243, 305, 361 

Fanning, Edmund, E. J. Wood, 1 35 

Greater United States, The, Robert W. Winston, 54 

Hamlet with the Part of Hamlet Eeft Out, or A Comparative 
Study of "Hamlet" and "Fratricide Punished," 

Bessie Lewis Whitaker, 335 

Henry the Fifth's Queen, B. B. Lane, Jr., 90 

Idyllic Note in Adam Bede, The, M., 33 

Impressions of a Sojourner in the Hill Country, 

Whitehead Kluttz, 330 

In Face of the Foe, X— 220 

Influence of Holland upon American Institutions, 

Charles L, Van Noppen, ] 42 

Knighthood and Nobility in America, 1 



Contents 372 

Least of all Lands, The, P. H. Hoge, D.D., 127 

Life on the Holiday Campus, T. G. Pearson, 150 

Life's Golden Age (Poem), 65 

Manning, Hon. John, LL.D., K. P. Battle, 191 

Melancholy Days, The (Poem), P. C. Whitlock, 141 

Monsieur Melancholy, Bessie Lewis Whitaker 259 

JJegro in the South, The, W. S. Wilson, 156 

Old Man's Dream, An, C. B. Denson, Jr., 81 

Only a Little Lock of Hair (Poem), A. T. H., 80 

On the Banks of Helm Brook, C, 26 

Perils of Imperialism, The, /. M. Greenfield , 73 

Philanthropic Literary Society, The, W. E. Cox, 100 

Reflection, A, Edward W. Pott, 354 

Senior's Fancy, A, A. E. Cates, 61 

Thomas, Col- William Holland Mrs. A. C. Avery, 291 

Types in Chevy Chase and King Henry the Fourth, 

R. D. W. Connor, 204 

University and the Public Schools, The, part i, 

F. M. Osborne, 212 

University and the Public Schools, The, part h, 

F. M. Osborne, 312 

Unsuccessful 'Possum Hunt, An, C. B. Denson, Jr., 286 

View of Cyrano De Bergerac, A, H. L. Watson, 163 

When the Jessamine Blooms Again, W. L. H., 346 

Wilson Caldwell, - 19 

BOOK NOTICES. 

Birds of Village and Field, T. G. Pearson, 178 

Bismarck, W. D. Toy, HO 

Beginners' Objective Arithmetic, A. Henderson, 179 

Geographical Catechism, A, M. C. S. Noble, 299 

Gladstone, William Fwart, Thomas Hume, D.D., 236 

Helbeck of Bannisdale, C. B. Denson, Jr., 42 

History of Spanish- American War, 241 



373 University Magazine 

Huxley, Thomas, H. V. Wilson 174 

Lives of Distinguished North Carolinians, 

C. B. Benson, Jr 239 

Prisoners of Hope, C. B. Benson, Jr 176 

Southern States of the American Union, The, 

C. B. Benson, Jr.... 360 

Southern Literature, C. B. Benson,. Jr 360 

Varia, C. B. Benson, Jr 113 

THE EDITOR'S DESK. 

Admission of Women to the University, C. C. Brown, 40 

Alumni Hall, W. 8. Wilson, 172 

Base Ball, W. <S. Wilson, 173 

Carr Hall, W. 8. Wilson, 356 

Commencement of '99, W. 8. Wilson, 233 

Department of Pedagogy, ./. E. Latta, 108 

Dr. John Manning, W. 8. Wilson, 232 

Exchange Department, W. 8. Wilson, 104 

Foot Ball, W. 8. Wilson, 106 

General Progress, /. E. Latta, 296 

Georgia- Carolina Debate, W. 8. Wilson, 235 

Legislature of 1899, W. 8. Wilson, 234 

New Law Professor, W. 8. Wilson, 234 

'99, W. S. Wilson 169 

Our Exchanges, W. 8. Wilson, „ 298 

Parting Word, A, W. 8. Wilson, 357 

Policy of the Magazine, W. 8. Wilson, „_38 

Present Needs, H. M. London, 170 

Unexpected Delay, W. 8. Wilson, 41 



/